Skip to main content

Table 5 Hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals for associations of instant coffee consumption with incident chronic liver disease, incident chronic liver disease or steatosis, death from chronic liver disease and incident hepatocellular carcinoma

From: All coffee types decrease the risk of adverse clinical outcomes in chronic liver disease: a UK Biobank study

  HR1 HR2 HR3 HR4
CLD
 No coffee 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
 0.5 cups/d 1.12 (0.95–1.32) 1.02 (0.87–1.21) 1.03 (0.87–1.23) 1.04 (0.86–1.27)
 1 cup/d 0.94 (0.84–1.06) 0.84 (0.75–0.95) 0.91 (0.80–1.02) 0.95 (0.83–1.09)
 2 cups/d 0.93 (0.83–1.05) 0.84 (0.75–0.95) 0.88 (0.78–0.99) 0.87 (0.76–1.00)
 3 cups/d 0.81 (0.70–0.93) 0.73 (0.63–0.84) 0.75 (0.64–0.86) 0.79 (0.67–0.92)
 4 cups/d 0.80 (0.68–0.94) 0.73 (0.62–0.86) 0.71 (0.60–0.84) 0.73 (0.61–0.88)
  ≥ 5 cups/d 0.88 (0.77–1.01) 0.84 (0.73–0.96) 0.71 (0.62–0.82) 0.74 (0.63–0.87)
 Any amount 0.90 (0.83–0.98) 0.83 (0.76–0.89) 0.82 (0.76–0.90) 0.85 (0.77–0.93)
 Any amount (excluding cases within first 5 years) 0.90 (0.80–1.01) 0.83 (0.74–0.93) 0.82 (0.73–0.93) 0.84 (0.73–0.96)
CLD or steatosis
 No coffee 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
 0.5 cups/d 1.01 (0.87–1.16) 0.94 (0.82–1.08) 0.98 (0.84–1.13) 1.00 (0.84–1.18)
 1 cup/d 0.93 (0.84–1.02) 0.85 (0.78–0.94) 0.95 (0.86–1.05) 0.97 (0.87–1.08)
 2 cups/d 0.90 (0.82–0.99) 0.83 (0.75–0.92) 0.90 (0.81–1.00) 0.88 (0.78–0.98)
 3 cups/d 0.79 (0.70–0.88) 0.73 (0.65–0.82) 0.76 (0.67–0.86) 0.78 (0.68–0.89)
 4 cups/d 0.78 (0.69–0.89) 0.73 (0.64–0.84) 0.73 (0.63–0.83) 0.72 (0.62–0.84)
  ≥ 5 cups/d 0.92 (0.82–1.02) 0.88 (0.79–0.98) 0.77 (0.68–0.86) 0.76 (0.67–0.87)
 Any amount 0.89 (0.83–0.95) 0.83 (0.77–0.88) 0.85 (0.79–0.91) 0.85 (0.79–0.92)
 Any amount (excluding cases within first 5 years) 0.88 (0.81–0.97) 0.83 (0.76–0.91) 0.84 (0.76–0.93) 0.84 (0.75–0.94)
HCC
 No coffee 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
 0.5 cups/d 1.16 (0.55–2.47) 0.96 (0.45–2.04) 0.88 (0.40–1.98) 0.61 (0.22–1.74)
 1 cup/d 0.84 (0.48–1.47) 0.67 (0.38–1.17) 0.64 (0.35–1.16) 0.62 (0.32–1.20)
 2 cups/d 1.44 (0.89–2.31) 1.15 (0.72–1.86) 1.10 (0.67–1.81) 1.26 (0.74–2.14)
 3 cups/d 1.15 (0.65–2.03) 0.94 (0.53–1.66) 0.92 (0.51–1.65) 1.08 (0.58–2.00)
 4 cups/d 0.88 (0.43–1.81) 0.74 (0.36–1.52) 0.70 (0.34–1.44) 0.67 (0.29–1.51)
  ≥ 5 cups/d 0.83 (0.44–1.57) 0.74 (0.39–1.40) 0.66 (0.34–1.26) 0.56 (0.26–1.21)
 Any amount 1.06 (0.74–1.51) 0.87 (0.61–1.25) 0.82 (0.56–1.20) 0.83 (0.55–1.27)
 Any amount (excluding cases within first 5 years) 0.94 (0.59–1.49) 0.77 (0.49–1.22) 0.74 (0.45–1.21) 0.75 (0.43–1.30)
Death from CLD
 No coffee 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
 0.5 cups/d 0.99 (0.57–1.71) 0.85 (0.50–1.47) 0.84 (0.47–1.47) 0.75 (0.40–1.40)
 1 cup/d 0.85 (0.59–1.24) 0.74 (0.51–1.08) 0.76 (0.51–1.12) 0.82 (0.55–1.22)
 2 cups/d 0.91 (0.63–1.32) 0.78 (0.54–1.13) 0.74 (0.51–1.10) 0.81 (0.54–1.20)
 3 cups/d 0.71 (0.45–1.13) 0.61 (0.38–0.97) 0.58 (0.36–0.93) 0.62 (0.38–1.02)
 4 cups/d 0.36 (0.17–0.73) 0.30 (0.15–0.62) 0.27 (0.13–0.56) 0.32 (0.16–0.67)
  ≥ 5 cups/d 0.56 (0.34–0.93) 0.48 (0.29–0.80) 0.38 (0.23–0.63) 0.34 (0.19–0.61)
 Any amount 0.75 (0.58–0.97) 0.64 (0.49–0.83) 0.59 (0.45–0.77) 0.62 (0.47–0.83)
 Any amount (excluding cases within first 5 years) 0.81 (0.59–1.13) 0.69 (0.50–0.96) 0.66 (0.47–0.93) 0.69 (0.48–0.99)
  1. Abbreviations: CLD (chronic liver disease), HCC (hepatocellular carcinoma). 1unadjusted, 2adjusted for age and sex, 3as for 2 and additionally adjusted for deprivation (Townsend score), smoking status (never, current or previous), diabetes (yes or no), ethnicity (white or other ethnicity), alcohol frequency (less than weekly, once or twice a week, three or four times a week, and daily or almost daily) and BMI, 4as for 3 but adjusted for weekly alcohol units instead of alcohol frequency