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Table 4 Hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals for associations of decaffeinated coffee consumption with incident chronic liver disease, incident chronic liver disease or steatosis, death from chronic liver disease and incident hepatocellular carcinoma

From: All coffee types decrease the risk of adverse clinical outcomes in chronic liver disease: a UK Biobank study

  HR1 HR2 HR3 HR4
CLD
 No coffee 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
 0.5 cups/d 0.85 (0.64–1.13) 0.83 (0.62–1.10) 0.90 (0.66–1.23) 0.85 (0.59–1.23)
 1 cup/d 0.75 (0.63–0.91) 0.70 (0.58–0.85) 0.81 (0.67–0.98) 0.82 (0.66–1.02)
 2 cups/d 0.78 (0.64–0.95) 0.72 (0.59–0.87) 0.81 (0.66–0.99) 0.83 (0.66–1.04)
 3 cups/d 0.74 (0.58–0.94) 0.68 (0.53–0.87) 0.71 (0.55–0.91) 0.76 (0.58–1.01)
 4 cups/d 0.80 (0.61–1.05) 0.74 (0.57–0.98) 0.81 (0.61–1.06) 0.85 (0.62–1.15)
  ≥ 5 cups/d 0.75 (0.58–0.95) 0.71 (0.56–0.91) 0.72 (0.56–0.92) 0.72 (0.54–0.97)
 Any amount 0.77 (0.69–0.86) 0.72 (0.64–0.80) 0.79 (0.70–0.88) 0.80 (0.70–0.92)
 Any amount (excluding cases within first 5 years) 0.83 (0.71–0.97) 0.78 (0.67–0.91) 0.85 (0.72–1.00) 0.86 (0.72–1.04)
CLD or steatosis
 No coffee 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
 0.5 cups/d 0.79 (0.62–1.01) 0.78 (0.61–0.99) 0.93 (0.72–1.19) 0.84 (0.62–1.15)
 1 cup/d 0.75 (0.65–0.88) 0.71 (0.61–0.83) 0.82 (0.70–0.97) 0.81 (0.67–0.97)
 2 cups/d 0.80 (0.68–0.93) 0.75 (0.64–0.87) 0.87 (0.74–1.02) 0.86 (0.72–1.03)
 3 cups/d 0.75 (0.62–0.91) 0.70 (0.58–0.85) 0.77 (0.62–0.94) 0.83 (0.66–1.04)
 4 cups/d 0.79 (0.64–0.99) 0.75 (0.60–0.93) 0.82 (0.66–1.03) 0.86 (0.67–1.11)
  ≥ 5 cups/d 0.94 (0.78–1.12) 0.90 (0.75–1.08) 0.90 (0.75–1.08) 0.91 (0.74–1.12)
 Any amount 0.80 (0.73–0.87) 0.76 (0.69–0.83) 0.85 (0.77–0.93) 0.85 (0.76–0.95)
 Any amount (excluding cases within first 5 years) 0.84 (0.74–0.94) 0.79 (0.70–0.90) 0.88 (0.77–1.00) 0.88 (0.76–1.01)
HCC
 No coffee 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
 0.5 cups/d NA NA NA NA
 1 cup/d 1.15 (0.56–2.36) 1.03 (0.50–2.12) 1.17 (0.57–2.44) 0.83 (0.32–2.14)
 2 cups/d 1.14 (0.54–2.43) 0.99 (0.47–2.11) 1.08 (0.50–2.32) 1.23 (0.54–2.80)
 3 cups/d 1.34 (0.57–3.14) 1.17 (0.50–2.75) 1.16 (0.49–2.76) 1.48 (0.61–3.55)
 4 cups/d 1.23 (0.44–3.43) 1.08 (0.39–3.02) 1.07 (0.38–2.99) 1.01 (0.31–3.30)
  ≥ 5 cups/d 0.46 (0.11–1.91) 0.44 (0.11–1.80) 0.39 (0.09–1.61) 0.51 (0.12–2.15)
 Any amount 1.08 (0.68–1.72) 0.96 (0.60–1.54) 0.99 (0.61–1.61) 1.01 (0.59–1.74)
 Any amount (excluding cases within first 5 years) 1.17 (0.66–2.07) 1.04 (0.58–1.85) 1.10 (0.60–2.00) 1.07 (0.54–2.12)
Death from CLD
 No coffee 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
 0.5 cups/d 0.50 (0.16–1.56) 0.52 (0.16–1.63) 0.67 (0.21–2.12) 0.82 (0.26–2.62)
 1 cup/d 0.29 (0.12–0.71) 0.29 (0.12–0.71) 0.37 (0.15–0.92) 0.18 (0.04–0.72)
 2 cups/d 0.39 (0.17–0.89) 0.37 (0.16–0.85) 0.44 (0.19–1.02) 0.37 (0.13–1.01)
 3 cups/d 0.30 (0.10–0.96) 0.29 (0.09–0.91) 0.32 (0.10–1.01) 0.39 (0.12–1.24)
 4 cups/d 0.56 (0.21–1.52) 0.53 (0.19–1.43) 0.59 (0.21–1.60) 0.55 (0.17–1.75)
  ≥ 5 cups/d 0.21 (0.05–0.85) 0.20 (0.05–0.83) 0.20 (0.05–0.83) 0.27 (0.07–1.09)
 Any amount 0.35 (0.22–0.56) 0.34 (0.22–0.54) 0.40 (0.25–0.64) 0.37 (0.22–0.62)
Any amount (excluding cases within first 5 years) 0.30 (0.16–0.56) 0.28 (0.15–0.53) 0.34 (0.18–0.63) 0.27 (0.13–0.58)
  1. Abbreviations: CLD (chronic liver disease), HCC (hepatocellular carcinoma). 1unadjusted, 2adjusted for age and sex, 3as for 2 and additionally adjusted for deprivation (Townsend score), smoking status (never, current or previous), diabetes (yes or no), ethnicity (white or other ethnicity), alcohol frequency (less than weekly, once or twice a week, three or four times a week, and daily or almost daily) and BMI, 4as for 3 but adjusted for weekly alcohol units instead of alcohol frequency