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Table 3 Hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals for associations of coffee consumption (all types) with incident chronic liver disease, incident chronic liver disease or steatosis, death from chronic liver disease and incident hepatocellular carcinoma, as calculated in unadjusted and multivariate analyses

From: All coffee types decrease the risk of adverse clinical outcomes in chronic liver disease: a UK Biobank study

  HR1 (n = 494,585) HR2 (n = 494,585) HR3 (n = 486,251) HR4 (n = 408,835)
CLD
 No coffee 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
 0.5 cups/d 0.93 (0.81–1.06) 0.88 (0.77–1.01) 0.92 (0.80–1.06) 0.90 (0.76–1.05)
 1 cup/d 0.84 (0.76–0.93) 0.78 (0.70–0.86) 0.84 (0.76–0.94) 0.87 (0.77–0.97)
 2 cups/d 0.83 (0.75–0.92) 0.76 (0.69–0.84) 0.81 (0.73–0.90) 0.80 (0.71–0.90)
 3 cups/d 0.74 (0.66–0.84) 0.68 (0.60–0.77) 0.70 (0.62–0.80) 0.73 (0.64–0.83)
 4 cups/d 0.76 (0.66–0.87) 0.70 (0.61–0.80) 0.70 (0.60–0.80) 0.71 (0.61–0.82)
  ≥ 5 cups/d 0.84 (0.74–0.94) 0.79 (0.71–0.89) 0.70 (0.62–0.79) 0.72 (0.63–0.83)
 Any amount 0.82 (0.76–0.88) 0.76 (0.71–0.82) 0.78 (0.72–0.84) 0.79 (0.72–0.86)
 Any amount (excluding cases within first 5 years) 0.83 (0.74–0.92) 0.77 (0.69–0.86) 0.79 (0.70–0.88) 0.79 (0.70–0.90)
CLD or steatosis
 No coffee 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
 0.5 cups/d 0.85 (0.76–0.95) 0.82 (0.73–0.92) 0.90 (0.80–1.01) 0.87 (0.76–1.00)
 1 cup/d 0.83 (0.77–0.90) 0.78 (0.72–0.85) 0.89 (0.81–0.96) 0.88 (0.80–0.97)
 2 cups/d 0.81 (0.74–0.87) 0.75 (0.69–0.82) 0.84 (0.77–0.92) 0.81 (0.74–0.89)
 3 cups/d 0.72 (0.66–0.80) 0.68 (0.61–0.75) 0.73 (0.66–0.81) 0.74 (0.66–0.83)
 4 cups/d 0.75 (0.67–0.84) 0.70 (0.63–0.78) 0.71 (0.64–0.80) 0.71 (0.62–0.81)
  ≥ 5 cups/d 0.91 (0.83–1.00) 0.87 (0.80–0.96) 0.79 (0.71–0.87) 0.78 (0.70–0.87)
 Any amount 0.81 (0.76–0.86) 0.77 (0.72–0.81) 0.82 (0.76–0.87) 0.80 (0.75–0.86)
 Any amount (excluding cases within first 5 years) 0.81 (0.74–0.88) 0.77 (0.71–0.84) 0.81 (0.74–0.89) 0.79 (0.71–0.88)
HCC
 No coffee 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
 0.5 cups/d 0.69 (0.35–1.38) 0.63 (0.32–1.25) 0.63 (0.31–1.30) 0.51 (0.22–1.23)
 1 cup/d 0.83 (0.53–1.30) 0.71 (0.45–1.12) 0.75 (0.47–1.21) 0.70 (0.41–1.19)
 2 cups/d 1.07 (0.70–1.64) 0.90 (0.59–1.38) 0.91 (0.58–1.43) 1.03 (0.63–1.66)
 3 cups/d 0.99 (0.60–1.62) 0.84 (0.51–1.37) 0.87 (0.52–1.44) 1.02 (0.60–1.74)
 4 cups/d 0.90 (0.50–1.62) 0.77 (0.43–1.38) 0.76 (0.42–1.38) 0.74 (0.38–1.43)
  ≥ 5 cups/d 0.82 (0.47–1.42) 0.75 (0.43–1.29) 0.68 (0.39–1.19) 0.62 (0.33–1.18)
 Any amount 0.91 (0.65–1.27) 0.78 (0.56–1.10) 0.79 (0.55–1.12) 0.80 (0.54–1.19)
 Any amount (excluding cases within first 5 years) 0.83 (0.54–1.28) 0.71 (0.46–1.10) 0.73 (0.46–1.15) 0.74 (0.45–1.23)
Death from CLD
 No coffee 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
 0.5 cups/d 0.72 (0.46–1.14) 0.67 (0.42–1.06) 0.69 (0.43–1.10) 0.60 (0.36–1.02)
 1 cup/d 0.56 (0.40–0.79) 0.51 (0.36–0.72) 0.54 (0.38–0.76) 0.55 (0.38–0.80)
 2 cups/d 0.68 (0.49–0.95) 0.60 (0.43–0.84) 0.58 (0.41–0.81) 0.60 (0.42–0.87)
 3 cups/d 0.54 (0.36–0.82) 0.47 (0.31–0.72) 0.45 (0.30–0.69) 0.49 (0.32–0.76)
 4 cups/d 0.46 (0.28–0.78) 0.40 (0.24–0.67) 0.36 (0.21–0.61) 0.40 (0.23–0.69)
  ≥ 5 cups/d 0.62 (0.41–0.93) 0.54 (0.36–0.81) 0.40 (0.26–0.62) 0.39 (0.25–0.63)
 Any amount 0.60 (0.47–0.76) 0.53 (0.42–0.68) 0.50 (0.39–0.64) 0.51 (0.39–0.67)
 Any amount (excluding cases within first 5 years) 0.64 (0.47–0.87) 0.57 (0.42–0.77) 0.55 (0.40–0.76) 0.56 (0.39–0.78)
  1. Abbreviations: CLD (chronic liver disease), HCC (hepatocellular carcinoma). 1unadjusted, 2adjusted for age and sex, 3as for 2 and additionally adjusted for deprivation (Townsend score), smoking status (never, current or previous), diabetes (yes or no), ethnicity (white or other ethnicity), alcohol frequency (less than weekly, once or twice a week, three or four times a week, and daily or almost daily) and BMI, 4as for 3 but adjusted for weekly alcohol units instead of alcohol frequency