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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of the 494,585 participants in the UK Biobank cohort and distribution of incident chronic liver disease, incident chronic liver disease or steatosis, death from chronic liver disease and incident hepatocellular carcinoma according to coffee consumption

From: All coffee types decrease the risk of adverse clinical outcomes in chronic liver disease: a UK Biobank study

Coffee (cups/d) 0 Half 1 2 3 4 ≥5
N 109,767 35,876 99,179 92,886 60,479 41,515 54,883
Median age (years) at baseline (IQR) 56 (13) 57 (13) 59 (13) 59 (13) 58 (12) 58 (13) 57 (13)
Sex (% female) 58.3 55.3 57.2 54.3 52.4 50 47.5
Ethnicity (%)
 White 89.7 92.7 93.8 95.7 96.8 97.4 97.6
 Other ethnicity 9.9 7.0 5.9 4.0 2.9 2.2 2.0
 Unknown 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3
 Median Townsend deprivation score −1.70 −2.15 −2.23 −2.32 −2.38 −2.35 −2.06
Alcohol frequency (%)
 Never 14.4 6.9 6.4 5.3 5.1 5.5 7.7
 Special occasions only 15.9 12.1 11.1 9.1 8.8 9.2 12.0
 One to three times a month 12.6 12.7 11.0 9.9 9.8 10.1 11.8
 Once or twice a week 24.9 26.6 27.0 26.1 25.3 25.8 25.4
 Three or four times a week 17.6 23.2 24.0 25.8 26.3 25.8 22.3
 Daily or almost daily 14.5 18.5 20.4 23.6 24.6 23.5 20.7
 Unknown 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
 Mean weekly units (IQR) 11 (24.3) 15 (24.8) 15.2 (23.3) 17.5 (23.8) 18.2 (24.2) 18.8 (25.2) 17.5 (27.8)
Diabetes (%)
 Yes 5.7 5.0 4.9 4.7 5.0 5.3 5.7
 No 93.9 94.7 94.8 95.0 94.8 94.4 94.0
 Unknown 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3
Median BMI in kg/m2 (IQR) 26.8 (6.1) 26.4 (5.7) 26.3 (5.6) 26.5 (5.5) 26.8 (5.5) 27.2 (5.7) 27.5 (5.9)
Smoking (%)
 Never 58.6 58.3 57.6 55.3 53.6 50.3 42.3
 Previous 31.3 33.1 34.8 35.7 36.2 36.9 35.9
 Current 9.7 8.2 7.3 8.7 9.9 12.4 21.3
 Unknown 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
CLD cases (n)
 Total (%) 927 (0.84) 281 (0.78) 707 (0.71) 651 (0.70) 380 (0.63) 267 (0.64) 387 (0.71)
 First 5 years excluded (%) 449 (0.41) 134 (0.37) 329 (0.33) 320 (0.34) 185 (0.31) 122 (0.29) 213 (0.39)
CLD or steatosis cases (n)
 Total (%) 1412 (1.29) 394 (1.10) 1063 (1.07) 965 (1.04) 564 (0.93) 400 (0.96) 641 (1.17)
 First 5 years excluded (%) 724 (0.66) 198 (0.55) 521 (0.53) 497 (0.54) 289 (0.48) 197 (0.47) 357 (0.65)
HCC cases (n)
 Total (%) 44 (0.04) 10 (0.03) 33 (0.03) 40 (0.04) 24 (0.04) 15 (0.04) 18 (0.03)
 First 5 years excluded (%) 28 (0.03) 1 (< 0.01) 3 (< 0.01) 3 (< 0.01) 1 (< 0.01) 0 (0.00) 3 (0.01)
CLD deaths(n)
 Total (%) 97 (0.09) 23 (0.06) 49 (0.05) 56 (0.06) 29 (0.05) 17 (0.04) 30 (0.05)
 First 5 years excluded (%) 59 (0.05) 12 (0.03) 30 (0.03) 41 (0.04) 20 (0.03) 9 (0.02) 21 (0.04)
  1. Abbreviations: N (number), BMI (body mass index), IQR (interquartile range), CLD (chronic liver disease), HCC (hepatocellular carcinoma)