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Table 3 Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice toward COVID-19

From: Knowledge, attitude, and acceptance of healthcare workers and the public regarding the COVID-19 vaccine: a cross-sectional study

Questions Total (%)
n = 15,087
General Population (%)
n = 11,120
Medical Students (%) n = 1752 Physicians (%) n = 1394 Paramedic (%) n = 821 P-value
1. Knowledge
1.1 Which of the following liquids is recommended for disinfecting surfaces that have come in contact with COVID-19 patients? < 0.001*
  Warm water 511 (3.4%) 407 (3.7%) 51 (2.9%) 26 (1.9%) 27 (3.3%)
  25% Alcohol 893 (5.9%) 735 (6.6%) 76 (4.3%) 41 (2.9%) 41 (5%)
  70% Alcohol 7179 (47.6%) 4875 (43.8%) 984 (56.2%) 880 (63.1%) 440 (53.6%)
  95% Alcohol 6504 (43.1%) 5103 (45.9%) 641 (36.6%) 447 (32.1%) 313 (38.1%)
1.2 The probability of contracting SARS-CoV-2 infection is lower in the case of: < 0.001*
  Talking to an infected person with no social distancing 4127 (27.4%) 3223 (29%) 340 (19.4%) 276 (19.8%) 288 (35.1%)
  Sleep with an infected person 392 (2.6%) 312 (2.8%) 34 (1.9%) 25 (1.8%) 21 (2.6%)
  Online video chat 10,568 (70%) 7585 (68.2%) 1378 (78.7%) 1093 (78.4%) 512 (62.4%)
1.3 Have you ever been taught how to wear and take-off the facemask according to international safety standards? < 0.001*
  Yes 12,072 (80%) 8691 (78.2%) 1475 (84.2%) 1214 (87.1%) 692 (84.3%)
  No 3015 (20%) 2429 (21.8%) 277 (15.8%) 180 (12.9%) 129 (15.7%)
1.4 Do you think COVID19-positive women are safe to breastfeed their babies? < 0.001*
  Yes 2740 (18.2%) 1767 (15.9%) 285 (16.3%) 509 (36.5%) 179 (21.8%)
  No 6600 (43.7%) 4930 (44.3%) 881 (50.3%) 447 (32.1%) 342 (41.7%)
  I do not know 5747 (38.1%) 4423 (39.8%) 586 (33.4%) 438 (31.4%) 300 (36.5%)
1.5 Do you think COVID-19 is a severe disease that may cause severe complications? < 0.001*
  Yes 9140 (60.6%) 6660 (59.9%) 1017 (58%) 968 (69.4%) 495 (60.3%)
  No 1825 (12.1%) 1341 (12.1%) 249 (14.2%) 131 (9.4%) 104 (12.7%)
  I do not know 4122 (27.3%) 3119 (28%) 486 (27.7%) 295 (21.2%) 222 (27%)
2. Attitude
2.1 The Novel Corona Virus is undoubtedly human-made to implement particular agendas? < 0.001*
  Yes 5836 (38.7%) 4404 (39.6%) 612 (34.9%) 476 (34.1%) 344 (41.9%)
  No 3227 (21.4%) 2258 (20.3%) 453 (25.9%) 345 (24.7%) 171 (20.8%)
  Maybe 6024 (39.9%) 4458 (40.1%) 687 (39.2%) 573 (41.4%) 306 (37.3%)
2.2 Do you think that the local governmental policies would help reduce the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus? < 0.001*
  Yes 4430 (29.4%) 3325 (29.9%) 479 (27.3%) 360 (25.8%) 266 (32.4%)
  No 10,657 (70.6%) 7795 (70.1%) 1273 (72.7%) 1034 (74.2%) 555 (67.6%)
2.3 Do you believe maintaining a social distance from COVID19 suspected and confirmed cases would negatively impact their psychology? < 0.001*
  Yes 6191 (41%) 4456 (40.1%) 811 (46.4%) 574 (41.2%) 350 (42.6%)
  No 8896 (59%) 6664 (59.9%) 941 (53.7%) 820 (58.8%) 471 (57.4%)
2.4 Do you think you are not at risk of contracting the COVID-19 because your immunity is strong, and you do not need to follow any precautionary measures? < 0.001*
  Yes 1401 (9.3%) 1112 (10%) 141 (8%) 57 (4.1%) 91 (11.1%)  
  No 13,686 (90.7%) 10,008 (90%) 1611 (92%) 1337 (95.9%) 730 (88.9%)
2.5 Do you believe that the traditional remedies (i.e., herbs) may protect from infectious diseases such as the COVID-19? < 0.001*
  Yes 5513 (36.5%) 4293 (38.6%) 588 (33.6%) 329 (23.6%) 303 (36.9%)
  No 9574 (63.5%) 6827 (61.4%) 1164 (66.4%) 1065 (76.4%) 518 (63.1%)
2.6 Should family members take care of their COVID-19 patients to reduce the risk of transmitting the infection to a single person? < 0.001*
  Yes 3599 (23.9%) 2796 (25.1%) 422 (24.1%) 213 (15.3%) 168 (20.5%)
  No 11,488 (76.1%) 8324 (74.9%) 1330 (75.9%) 1181 (84.7%) 653 (79.5%)
2.7 To which extent You agree that physical distancing can protect you and your family from contracting COVID-19 disease? < 0.001*
  Strongly agree 9530 (63.2%) 6958 (62.6%) 1031 (58.8%) 1009 (72.4%) 532 (64.8%)  
  Agree 2781 (18.4%) 2031 (18.3%) 373 (21.3%) 227 (16.3%) 150 (18.3%)
  Neutral 1982 (13.1%) 1503 (13.5%) 266 (15.2%) 117 (8.4%) 96 (11.7%)
  Disagree 412 (2.7%) 328 (2.9%) 42 (2.4%) 21 (1.5%) 21 (2.6%)
  Strongly disagree 382 (2.5%) 300 (2.7%) 40 (2.3%) 20 (1.4%) 22 (2.7%)
2.8 Do you think that following precautionary measures on a personal-level would help the community fight against the COVID-19 pandemic? 0.058
  Yes 14,527 (96.3%) 10,681 (96.1%) 1693 (96.6%) 1355 (97.2%) 798 (97.2%)
  No 560 (3.7%) 439 (3.9%) 59 (3.4%) 39 (2.8%) 23 (2.8%)
3. Practice
3.1 In case you have had contact with the COVID-19 case in the last 2 weeks, and you then have felt feverish or shortness of breath, which of the following steps should you do? < 0.001*
  Inform NCDC 2192 (14.5%) 1658 (14.9%) 208 (11.9%) 186 (13.3%) 140 (17.1%)  
  Inform family and friends. 4416 (29.3%) 3137 (28.2%) 591 (33.7%) 464 (33.3%) 224 (27.3%)  
  Isolate myself 8479 (56.2%) 6325 (56.9%) 953 (54.4%) 744 (53.4%) 457 (55.7%)  
3.2 What should you do if you have been exposed to the COVID-19, and you only informed later on? < 0.001*
  Isolate yourself and your family 12,854 (85.2%) 9511 (85.5%) 1525 (87%) 1150 (82.5%) 668 (81.4%)
  Put on a face mask 1051 (7%) 734 (6.6%) 109 (6.2%) 119 (8.5%) 89 (10.8%)
  Leave home only in urgent situations 1182 (7.8%) 875 (7.9%) 118 (6.7%) 125 (9%) 64 (7.8%)
3.3 Which of the following steps should you follow to take care of a family member who has been in contact with a case infected with SARS-CoV-2? < 0.001*
  Keep him/ her in an isolated room with all windows closed to prevent the transmission of infection 3260 (21.6%) 2529 (22.7%) 395 (22.5%) 175 (12.6%) 161 (19.6%)  
  Cleaning his personal items such as bedding and clothes on a daily basis 1929 (12.8%) 1508 (13.6%) 171 (9.8%) 136 (9.8%) 114 (13.9%)  
  Allowing friends and relatives to visit him/ her but only individually, not in groups 257 (1.7%) 211 (1.9%) 24 (1.4%) 7 (0.5%) 15 (1.8%)  
  Washing hands with soap and water and use medical gloves while caring for him/her 9641 (63.9%) 6872 (61.8%) 1162 (66.3%) 1076 (77.2%) 531 (64.7%)  
3.4 Which of the following measures should be undertaken to deal with the corpse of a patient who died from COVID-19? < 0.001*
  Washing and depositing the deceased is considered safe and must be allowed to respect the relatives and friends. 634 (4.2%) 512 (4.6%) 59 (3.4%) 32 (2.3%) 31 (3.8%)  
  Funerals should not be allowed at all 11,788 (78.1%) 8683 (78.1%) 1337 (76.3%) 1105 (79.3%) 663 (80.8%)  
  Funerals are only permitted under strict precautionary policies 2665 (17.7%) 1925 (17.3%) 356 (20.3%) 257 (18.4%) 127 (15.5%)  
3.5 What is the best method to clean your hands? < 0.001*
  Wash hands only with water 226 (1.5%) 181 (1.6%) 20 (1.1%) 14 (1%) 11 (1.3%)  
  Wash hands with soap and water 9246 (61.3%) 6723 (60.5%) 1005 (57.4%) 1003 (72%) 515 (62.7%)
  Wash hands with a disinfectant hand wash 5615 (37.2%) 4216 (37.9%) 727 (41.5%) 377 (27%) 295 (36%)  
3.6 How do you greet your colleagues at work or at school? < 0.001*
  By shaking hands 2350 (15.6%) 1789 (16.1%) 362 (20.7%) 99 (7.1%) 100 (12.2%)  
  By Hugging each other 406 (2.7%) 296 (2.7%) 85 (4.9%) 8 (0.06%) 17 (2.1%)  
  Only verbal greeting 12,331 (81.7%) 9035 (81.3%) 1305 (74.5%) 1287 (92.3%) 704 (85.7%)  
3.7 When are you going to cough or sneeze? < 0.001*
  I usually Sneeze and cough into my hand palms 3208 (21.3%) 2464 (22.2%) 331 (18.9%) 228 (16.4%) 185 (22.5%)  
  I usually sneeze and cough into my elbow 9473 (62.8%) 6769 (60.9%) 1136 (64.8%) 1043 (74.8%) 525 (63.9%)  
  I prevent myself from coughing/sneezing 811 (5.4%) 615 (5.5%) 120 (6.8%) 42 (3%) 34 (4.1%)  
  Cough / sneeze freely and without covers, because viruses do not live outside the body 1595 (10.6%) 1272 (11.4%) 165 (9.4%) 81 (5.8%) 77 (9.4%)  
3.8 Do you practice social distancing, especially when dealing with people who express symptoms of a cold or a fever? < 0.001*
  Yes 13,684 (90.7%) 10,037 (90.3%) 1566 (89.4%) 1321 (94.8%) 760 (92.6%)  
  No 1403 (9.3%) 1083 (9.7%) 186 (10.6%) 73 (5.2%) 61 (7.4%)  
3.9 Do you routinely wear a face mask when you go out? < 0.001*
  Yes 10,268 (68.1%) 7306 (65.7%) 1279 (73%) 1115 (80%) 568 (69.2%)  
  No 4819 (31.9%) 3814 (34.3%) 473 (27%) 279 (20%) 253 (30.8%)  
3.10 Do you perform the protective measures, including social distancing, to protect yourself from getting the COVID-19? < 0.001*
  Yes 11,658 (77.3%) 8472 (76.2%) 1344 (76.7%) 1186 (85.1%) 656 (79.9%)  
  No 3429 (22.7%) 2648 (23.8%) 408 (23.3%) 208 (14.9%) 165 (20.1%)