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Table 3 Multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis for weight status and its associated factors among adolescents (n = 627)

From: The association of sleep problem, dietary habits and physical activity with weight status of adolescents in Nepal

  Model-I Model-II Model-III Model-IV
Study variables Underweight Overweight/obese Underweight Overweight/obese Underweight Overweight/obese Underweight Overweight/obese
  RRR(95% CI) RRR(95% CI) RRR(95% CI) RRR(95% CI) RRR(95% CI) RRR(95% CI) RRR(95% CI) RRR(95% CI)
Sleep characteristics
Sleep problem
  No sleep problem Ref Ref      Ref Ref
  Sleep problem 0.96 (0.42–2.10) 6.90 (4.49–10.60)***      1.29 (0.52–3.21) 13.37 (7.14–25.05)***
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)
  No Ref Ref      Ref Ref
  Yes 1.31 (0.43–3.97) 3.02 (1.58–5.75)**      1.83 (0.52–6.44) 3.21 (1.31–7.86)*
Adolescents dietary habit in past 30 days
Went hungry
  Never Ref Ref      Ref Ref
  Rarely/sometimes 2.70 (1.43–5.08)** 1.02 (0.66–1.58)      2.56 (1.27–5.16)** 0.86 (0.48–1.53)
Consumed fruits
  Never Ref Ref      Ref Ref
  ≥ 1 times/day 2.01 (1.08–3.71)* 1.38 (0.90–2.09)      1.94 (0.98–3.83) 1.32 (0.78–2.26)
Consumed vegetables
  ≤ 1 time/day Ref Ref      Ref Ref
  > 2 times/day 0.78 (0.39–1.54) 1.14 (0.71–1.84)      0.68 (0.31–1.48) 1.27 (0.68–2.36)
Consumed soft drinks
  < 1 time/day Ref Ref      Ref Ref
  ≥ 1 times/day 0.27 (0.13–0.54)*** 5.12 (3.13–8.36)***      0.27 (0.12–0.61)** 5.44 (2.93–10.10)***
Consumed high fat food
  ≤ 1 time/day Ref Ref      Ref Ref
  ≥ 2 times/day 1.01 (0.52–1.91) 2.23 (1.46–3.41)***      1.12 (0.48–2.65) 2.17 (1.18–3.99)*
Consumed fast food
  Daily Ref Ref      Ref Ref
  2–3 days 0.29 (0.13–0.66)** 1.06 (0.49–2.27)      0.62 (0.23–1.69) 1.08 (0.40–2.92)
  ≥ 4 days 0.23 (0.09–0.55)** 1.59 (0.74–3.44)      0.45 (0.15–1.31) 1.25 (0.46–3.39)
Consumed junk food
  No Ref Ref      Ref Ref
  Yes 1.95 (0.98–3.90) 3.79 (2.08–6.70)***      1.89 (0.87–4.09) 5.71 (2.55–12.82)***
Consumed food groups (10 food groups)
  < 5 food groups 2.86 (1.54–5.33)** 1.24 (0.81–1.90)      0.27 (0.13–0.57)** 0.55 (0.31–0.97)*
  ≥ 5 food groups Ref Ref      Ref Ref
Adolescents characteristics
Age (years)
  12–13    Ref Ref    Ref Ref
  14–16    1.22 (0.51–2.91) 0.34 (0.22–0.52)***    1.26 (0.48–3.34) 0.29 (0.16–0.52)***
Sex
  Female         
  Male    Ref Ref   
Type of school    1.05 (0.57–1.93) 0.96 (0.65–1.43)   
  Public         
  Private    Ref Ref   
    0.69 (0.36–1.31) 1.50 (0.95–2.37)   
Parents characteristics
Ethnicity
  Brahmin/Chhetri    Ref Ref    Ref Ref
  Terai Madhesi castes    1.37 (0.41–4.55) 1.33 (0.70–2.54)    1.32 (0.33–5.25) 2.81 (1.19–6.64)*
  Dalit and minorities    6.20 (2.89–13.29)*** 0.86 (0.43–1.71)    5.61 (2.12–14.82)*** 1.13 (0.44–2.90)
  Janajati    1.13 (0.51–2.49) 0.72 (0.45–1.13)    1.07 (0.41–2.74) 1.14 (0.56–2.34)
Family type
  Nuclear    Ref Ref   
  Joint    1.17 (0.63–2.18) 1.15 (0.77–1.71)   
Mothers education
  Below high school (≤ 10 class)    Ref Ref   
  High class (10 + 2)    1.22 (0.55–2.70) 0.76 (0.44–1.31)   
  University education    1.49 (0.51–4.37) 0.75 (0.37–1.53)    
Fathers education
  Below high school (≤ 10 class)    Ref Ref   
  High class (10 + 2)    1.95 (0.69–5.56) 0.69 (0.35–1.35)   
  University education    1.38 (0.44–4.27) 0.75 (0.37–1.52)   
Mothers occupation
  Unemployed    Ref Ref   
  Employed    0.87 (0.42–1.76) 0.92 (0.58–1.48)   
Fathers occupation
  Unemployed    Ref Ref    Ref Ref
  Employed    0.48 (0.21–1.09) 2.13 (1.15–3.93)*    1.03 (0.49–2.18) 2.04 (1.04–3.98)*
Monthly income (NRs)(1USD = 110NRs)
  < 15,000    Ref Ref   
  15,000–30,000    0.63 (0.27–1.46) 0.69 (0.39–1.21)   
  30,000–45,000    1.32 (0.49–3.59) 0.74 (0.39–1.43)   
  > 45,000    0.91 (0.32–2.62) 0.71 (0.36–1.38)   
Adolescents physical activity
Physical active
  Not active      Ref Ref Ref Ref
  Active      0.35 (0.15–0.78)* 0.66 (0.38–0.95)* 0.34 (0.14–0.80)* 0.64 (0.36–1.12)
Walking or ride bicycle
  None      Ref Ref Ref Ref
  1–3 days/week      0.95 (0.39–2.34) 2.76 (1.53–4.95)** 0.81 (0.30–2.14) 4.33 (2.01–9.28)***
  ≥ 4 days/week      0.57 (0.25–1.30) 2.17 (1.31–3.61)** 0.66 (0.28–1.55) 1.86 (1.01–3.42)*
Physical education/ training
  None      Ref Ref Ref Ref
  1–3 days/week      0.27 (0.09–0.81)* 0.65 (0.37–1.14) 0.25 (0.08–0.80)* 0.50 (0.24–1.03)
  ≥ 4 days/week      0.40 (0.18–0.88)* 0.26 (0.14–0.48)*** 0.48 (0.21–1.09) 0.24 (0.11–0.50)
Sedentary behavior
  < 1 h/day      Ref Ref Ref Ref
  1–2 h/day      0.51 (0.19–1.33) 0.77 (0.36–1.64) 0.43 (0.16–1.16) 0.86 (0.35–2.08)
  3–4 h/day      0.40 (0.16–0.97) 0.84 (0.41–1.72) 0.30 (0.11–.0.80)* 0.69 (0.29–1.63)
  5–6 h/day      0.69 (0.18–2.63) 5.71 (2.43–13.43)*** 0.57 (0.14–2.31) 3.21 (1.14–9.09)*
  1. Normal BMI: base outcome in multinomial logistic regression analysis
  2. Ref: reference category for predictor variables
  3. Model-I: adjusted for sleep characteristics and dietary habit
  4. Model-II: adjusted for sleep characteristics, dietary habit and socio-demographic characteristics of parents and students
  5. Model-III: adjusted for Physical activity and socio-demographic characteristics of parents and students and all variable shown under Model-III
  6. Model- IV: adjusted for significant variables (p < 0.05) from and Model-I and Model-II, and students physical activity information and all variables shown under Model-IV
  7. RRR relative risk ratio
  8. * < 0.05, ** < 0.01, and *** < 0.001