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Table 2 EPAO scores pre and post intervention among 8 early childcare centers in Greenville, South Carolina, USA, 2016–2018 a

From: LiveWell in early childhood: results from a two-year pilot intervention to improve nutrition and physical activity policies, systems and environments among early childhood education programs in South Carolina

  Pre-Intervention Post-Intervention Difference   Cohen’s d
EPAO subscale items Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD p value  
Total nutrition score 9.76 ± 2.47 11.72 ± 2.79 1.96 ± 2.48 0.06 0.79
 Nutrition policy 9.17 ± 6.11 13.75 ± 6.77 4.58 ± 4.34 0.02* 1.05
 Nutrition training and education 5 ± 2.83 6 ± 4.28 1 ± 4.66 0.56 0.21
 Staff nutrition behavior 11.75 ± 5.33 14.16 ± 2.67 2.41 ± 5.18 0.23 0.47
 Nutrition environment 8.33 ± 6.9 11.88 ± 4.8 3.54 ± 4.91 0.08 0.72
 Fruits and vegetables provided 10.25 ± 3.65 12 ± 3.85 1.75 ± 3.62 0.21 0.48
 Grains, beans and lean meat provided 3.92 ± 4.7 8.29 ± 6.45 4.38 ± 5.7 0.07 0.77
 High fat/high sugar provided 15.63 ± 3.34 14.63 ± 3.54 1.31 ± 2.09 0.47 0.27
 Beverage 12.27 ± 3.79 13.05 ± 4.88 0.77 ± 4.29 0.63 0.18
Total physical activity score 11.76 ± 1.54 13 ± 2.18 1.24 ± 2.34 0.17 0.53
 Physical activity policy 10 ± 9.26 17.5 ± 7.07 7.5 ± 8.86 0.048* 0.85
 Physical activity training and education 2.81 ± 3.88 10.94 ± 7.43 8.13 ± 10.42 0.06 0.78
 Staff physical activity behaviors 17.08 ± 2.78 12.51 ± 6.61 4.58 ± 6.16 0.07 0.74
 Active opportunities 13.13 ± 3.95 12.5 ± 1.7 0.63 ± 5.79 0.77 0.11
 Sedentary opportunities 18.33 ± 3.09 17.92 ± 4.69 .42 ± 6.28 0.86 0.07
 Sedentary environment 13.33 ± 3.56 11.67 ± 5.90 1.67 ± 3.08 0.17 0.54
 Portable play equipment 10.71 ± 4.52 11.43 ± 4.04 0.72 ± 3.97 0.63 0.18
 Fixed play equipment 8.66 ± 3.4 9.54 ± 3.05 0.88 ± 2.51 0.36 0.35
  1. a Values presented are mean and standard deviation; differences between pre and post assessed using a paired t-test. *p < .05