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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population according to social isolation level

From: Social isolation, physical inactivity and inadequate diet among European middle-aged and older adults

  Social Isolation t/χ2 p-value Cohen’s d/ phi
  Low/intermediate
(N = 55,559)
High
(N = 11,614)
Age, mean (SD) 65.1 (10.3) 70.1 (11.9) −48.78 < 0.001 0.50 (medium effect size)
Gender (%)    1457.93 < 0.001 −0.15 (small effect size)
 Female 50.3 67.6    
 Male 49.7 32.4    
Education (%)    1145.56 < 0.001 0.13 (small effect size)
 Primary or less 38.3 54.3    
 Secondary 36.5 32.3    
 Post-secondary 25.2 13.4    
Income (%)    292.93 < 0.001 0.07
 Low 31.9 39.4    
 Medium 33.1 28.9    
 High 35.0 31.8    
Physical health, mean (SD) 0.04 (0.7) −0.22 (0.7) 38.94 < 0.001 0.40 (small effect size)
Depression (Euro-D) (%)    1251.69 < 0.001 0.14 (small effect size)*
 No 73.3 56.9    
 Yes 26.7 43.1    
Seen/talked to medical doctor in the last 12 months, mean (SD) 6.7 (9.2) 7.7 (9.8) −9.90 < 0.001 −0.10
Excessive alcohol consumption (%)    29.55 < 0.001 −0.02
 No 95.8 96.8    
 Yes 4.2 3.2    
Ever smoked    107.06 < 0.001 −0.04
 No 53.0 56.6    
 Yes 47.0 43.4    
Physical inactivity (%)    922.52 < 0.001 0.12 (small effect size)
 No 82.8 70.0    
 Yes 17.2 30.0    
Not consume fruits or vegetables
every day (%)
   228.47 < 0.001 0.06
 No 77.9 71.5    
 Yes 22.1 28.5    
  1. Source: SHARE, wave 6, release 7.0.0., N = 67,173
  2. Notes: SD: Standard Deviation; Tests for two-group comparison (i.e., T test for independent samples (t); chi-square tests (X2)); Tests for effect size: Cohen’s d: small effect (≥ 0.20); medium effect (≥ 0.50); large effect (≥ 0.80); Phi: small effect (≥ 0.10); medium effect (≥ 0.30);large effect (≥ 0.50)