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Table 3 Hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause death

From: Non-employment and low educational level as risk factors for inequitable treatment and mortality in heart failure: a population-based cohort study of register data

N = 3874 Crude HR Model 2
HR adjusted for age
Model 3
HR adjusted for age and gender
Model 4
Multivariable model including: employment, education, hospitalisation-free time, comorbiditya, other medicationb.
Model 5
Multivariate model including: employment, education, hospitalisation-free time, comorbiditya, other medicationb, and interaction: no RASb*non-employment
No RASb dispensed 3.06 (2.55, 3.68) 3.23 (2.68, 3.89) 3.25 (2.69, 3.92) 1.66 (1.33, 2.06) 2.86 (2.00, 4.09)
Employment (N = 3836)
 Employed Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Non-employed 2.86 (2.36, 3.45) 2.70 (2.23, 3.27) 2.69 (2.22, 3.26) 1.76 (1.43, 2.17) 2.21 (1.73, 2.84)
Education (N = 3767)
 Compulsory school 1.81 (1.36, 2.42) 1.67 (1.25, 2.23) 1.67 (1.25, 2.23) 1.37 (1.02, 1.84) 1.39 (1.03, 1.86)
 Upper secondary school 1.61 (1.21, 2.13) 1.61 (1.22, 2.13) 1.61 (1.22, 2.13) 1.38 (1.04, 1.84) 1.40 (1.06, 1.86)
 Post-secondary school Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Age 1.05 (1.04, 1.06)    1.03 (1.02, 1.05) 1.03 (1.02, 1.05)
Male gender 0.86 (0.72, 1.03) 0.87 (0.72, 1.04)   1.24 (1.02, 1.51) 1.23 (1.01, 1.50)
Interaction: No RASb*non-employment (N = 3836)      0.47 (0.31, 0.70)
  1. RASb, Renin-angiotensin system blockers
  2. a) Comorbidity with: hypertension, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation/flutter, pacemaker, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), stroke, peripheral vascular disease, lung disease, renal dysfunction, diabetes mellitus, anaemia, dementia, cancer, liver disease, rheumatic disease, psychiatric disease
  3. b) Beta-blocker or aldosterone antagonist