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Table 2 Fully adjusted associations among Household Chaos, Family Routines, and Child Movement (n = 1836)^

From: Household chaos, family routines, and young child movement behaviors in the U.S. during the COVID-19 outbreak: a cross-sectional study

  Total Physical Activity MVPA Sleep Screen-time
Variable β (95% CI) p-value β (95% CI) p-value β (95% CI) p-value β (95% CI) p-value
Household Chaos
 Household Chaos score −0.01 (− 0.03 to − 0.01) 0.01* − 0.02 (− 0.03 to − 0.01) 0.01* −0.02 (− 0.03 to − 0.01) 0.001** 0.04 (0.03 to 0.05) 0.001**
Household Chaos Category
 Low chaos (< 25) Referent   Referent   Referent   Referent  
 Moderate/Low chaos (25-30) −0.08 (− 0.32 to 0.16) 0.51 0.002 (− 0.25 to 0.25) 0.99 − 0.03 (− 0.19 to 0.12) 0.65 0.35 (0.11 to 0.55) 0.001**
 Moderate/High chaos (31-35) − 0.18 (− 0.43 to 0.05) 0.13 −0.12 (− 0.37 to 0.13) 0.34 − 0.14 (− 0.30 to 0.01) 0.07 0.49 (0.27 to 0.71) 0.001**
 High chaos (> 35) −0.36 (− 0.62 to − 0.09) 0.008** −0.19 (− 0.47 to 0.07) 0.16 − 0.42 (− 0.59 to − 0.25) 0.001** 0.69 (0.45 to 0.92) 0.001**
Family Routines
 Bed-time Ritual −0.17 (− 0.49 to 0.14) 0.29 0.41 (0.07 to 0.74) 0.02* 0.58 (0.37 to 0.79) 0.001** −0.66 (− 0.95 to − 0.38) 0.001**
 Consistent Bed-time 0.08 (− 0.11 to 0.27) 0.40 0.13 (− 0.06 to 0.34) 0.17 0.19 (0.06 to 0.31) 0.003** −0.28 (− 0.45 to − 0.10) 0.001**
Routines Before Outbreak
 Very important Referent   Referent   Referent   Referent  
 Mildly/Not important −0.10 (−0.27 to 0.05) 0.18 −0.13 (− 0.30 to 0.03) 0.11 − 0.08 (− 0.18 to 0.02) 0.14 0.12 (− 0.02 to 0.27) 0.10
Routines Since the Outbreak
 Very important Referent   Referent   Referent   Referent  
 Somewhat important 0.04 (−0.13 to 0.23) 0.60 −0.19 (− 0.38 to − 0.01) 0.04* −0.13 (− 0.25 to − 0.01) 0.03* 0.23 (0.16 to 0.39) 0.001**
 Less/not important 0.03 (−0.19 to 0.25) 0.77 −0.28 (− 0.51 to − 0.04) 0.01* − 0.29 (− 0.44 to − 0.14) 0.01* 0.64 (0.58 to 0.83) 0.001**
  1. ^Assessed using linear regression with adjustment for child age, sex, ethnicity, maternal age, household income prior to outbreak, maternal employment prior to outbreak, household size, number of children in household, maternal current stress, U.S. state of residence, current telework status of the mother, current non-parental care status, income change since outbreak, and the other three movement behaviors (total physical activity, MVPA, sleep hours, or screen-time); MVPA: Moderate-to-vigorous Physical Activity; total physical activity and MVPA represent days/week; sleep and Screen-time represent hours/day; *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01