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Table 1 Descriptive characteristics of sample (n = 1836)^

From: Household chaos, family routines, and young child movement behaviors in the U.S. during the COVID-19 outbreak: a cross-sectional study

  Household Chaos Category  
Variable Low
(< 25)
n = 381
Moderate/Low
(25-30)
n = 432
Moderate/High
(31-35)
n = 502
High
(> 35)
n = 521
p-value
Child Age, mean (SD), y 3.9 (0.8) 3.9 (0.8) 3.8 (0.8) 3.9 (4.0) 0.09
Child Sex, n (%), Male 173 (45.4) 206 (47.8) 247 (49.2) 269 (51.6) 0.29
Maternal Age, mean (SD), y 35.9 (4.2) 35.7 (3.9) 35.5 (4.1) 36.1 (4.0) 0.20
Maternal Ethnicity, n (%)      0.001*
 White 324 (85.2) 400 (92.2) 461 (91.8) 475 (91.2)  
 African American 28 (7.4) 7 (1.6) 10 (2.0) 14 (2.7)  
 Other 29 (7.4) 25 (5.8) 31 (6.2) 32 (5.1)  
Maternal Hispanic Ethnicity, n (%) 26 (6.8) 24 (5.5) 30 (5.9) 30 (5.7) 0.64
Maternal Employment prior to outbreak, n (%)      0.04*
 Full-time (30h hours/week) 202 (53.0) 271 (62.7) 291 (58.0) 330 (63.3)  
 Part-time (< 30 h/week) 78 (20.5) 77 (17.8) 96 (19.1) 89 (17.1)  
 Unemployed/Retired 101 (26.5) 84 (19.5) 115 (22.9) 102 (19.6)  
Household Income prior to Outbreak, n (%)      0.88
  < $29,999 13 (3.4) 11 (2.5) 12 (2.2) 13 (2.5)  
 $30,000–$69,999 66 (17.3) 67 (15.5) 94 (18.8) 82 (15.8)  
 $70,000–$139,000 184 (48.3) 207 (48.0) 230 (45.9) 257 (49.3)  
 $140,000 or more 104 (27.3) 130 (30.0) 147 (29.3) 145 (27.8)  
 Prefer not to answer 14 (3.7) 17 (4.0) 19 (3.8) 24 (4.6)  
Number in Household Size, mean (SD) 3.9 (0.9) 4.1 (1.0) 4.2 (1.0) 4.4 (1.1) < 0.001*
Number of Children in Household, mean (SD) 1.9 (0.9) 2.1 (1.0) 2.2 (0.9) 2.4 (1.0) < 0.001*
Mother’s Current Stress, range 1–10, mean (SD) 5.7 (2.0) 6.5 (1.8) 7.1 (1.6) 7.9 (1.5) < 0.001*
Region, n(%)      0.34
 Midwest 89 (23.3) 92 (21.2) 122 (24.3) 126 (24.1)  
 Northeast 73 (19.1) 109 (25.2) 121 (24.1) 140 (26.8)  
 Southeast 124 (32.5) 128 (29.6) 142 (28.2) 141 (27.0)  
 Southwest/West 95 (24.9) 103 (23.8) 117 (23.3) 114 (21.8)  
24-h movement guidelines Met
 Physical Activity, n (%) 124 (32.5) 111 (25.7) 111 (22.1) 104 (20.0) 0.001*
 Sedentary Screen-time, n (%) 69 (18.1) 49 (11.3) 32 (6.4) 41 (7.9) < 0.001*
 Sleep, n (%) 342 (89.7) 386 (89.3) 441 (87.8) 416 (79.8) < 0.001*
Number of Guidelines, n (%)      < 0.001*
 0 20 (5.3) 31 (7.2) 45 (9.0) 87 (16.7)  
 1 215 (56.4) 270 (62.5) 339 (67.5) 317 (60.8)  
 2 118 (31.0) 117 (27.0) 109 (21.7) 107 (20.5)  
 3 28 (7.3) 14 (3.3) 9 (1.8) 10 (2.0)  
Family Routines
 Bed-time Ritual, n (%) 363 (95.4) 404 (93.5) 467 (93.0) 473 (90.8) 0.06
 Consistent Bedtime, n (%) 322 (84.5) 347 (80.3) 378 (75.3) 375 (72.0) 0.001*
Routine Before Outbreak, n (%)      0.001*
 Very important 259 (68.0) 259 (60.0) 283 (56.5) 293 (56.3)  
 Mildly/Not important 122 (32.0) 173 (40.0) 219 (44.5) 228 (43.7)  
Routines Since the Outbreak, n (%)      < 0.001*
 Very Important 184 (48.4) 149 (34.4) 143 (28.9) 138 (26.5)  
 Somewhat important 155 (40.8) 202 (46.8) 240 (47.9) 220 (42.3)  
 Less/Not important 41 (10.8) 81 (18.8) 119 (23.2) 163 (31.2)  
  1. ^Assessed using chi-square or fisher analysis or One-way ANOVA, p < 0.05*