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Table 3 Unadjusted and adjusted analyses between violent crimes exposure during pregnancy by quintiles, and birth outcomes.

From: Associations between neighborhood violence during pregnancy and birth outcomes: evidence from São Paulo’s Western Region Birth Cohort

  Unadjusted   Adjusted*  
  OR 95%IC p OR 95%IC p
Small-for-gestational-age
 Violent crimes
  1st quintile Ref.
  2nd quintile 1.36 1.02–1.83 0.039 1.34 1.00–1.80 0.054
  3rd quintile 1.20 0.82–1.75 0.349 1.19 0.81–1.75 0.373
  4th quintile 1.12 0.84–1.50 0.418 1.11 0.84–1.50 0.449
  5th quintile 1.46 1.10–1.93 0.009 1.41 1.06–1.89 0.019
Physical violence     1.07 0.43–2.65 0.896
Depression     0.42 0.13–1.36 0.147
Diabetes     0.70 0.27–1.82 0.468
Hypertension     1.27 0.82–1.95 0.286
Smoke     1.83 1.32–2.55 < 0.001
Drink     1.43 0.99–2.05 0.055
Preterm birth
 Violent crimes
  1st quintile Ref.
  2nd quintile 1.17 0.86–1.59 0.327 1.16 0.84–1.59 0.367
  3rd quintile 0.98 0.65–1.48 0.918 1.01 0.66–1.54 0.958
  4th quintile 1.29 0.98–1.72 0.070 1.35 1.01–1.80 0.040
  5th quintile 0.97 0.71–1.34 0.870 1.01 0.72–1.40 0.969
Physical violence     1.62 0.77–3.44 0.206
Depression     0.81 0.32–2.08 0.662
Diabetes     0.94 0.39–2.23 0.884
Hypertension     1.21 0.76–1.91 0.425
Smoke     2.04 1.47–2.82 <  0.001
Drink     1.18 0.79–1.76 0.420
Low birth weight
 Violent crimes
  1st quintile Ref.
  2nd quintile 1.38 1.00–1.91 0.050 1.37 0.98–1.91 0.063
  3rd quintile 1.32 0.88–1.99 0.178 1.36 0.89–2.07 0.153
  4th quintile 1.48 1.10–1.99 0.010 1.50 1.11–2.05 0.009
  5th quintile 1.42 1.04–1.95 0.029 1.42 1.03–1.98 0.034
Physical violence     2.12 1.03–4.36 0.042
Depression     0.71 0.22–2.25 0.557
Diabetes     0.30 0.07–1.30 0.107
Hypertension     1.73 1.10–2.71 0.017
Smoke     2.89 2.07–4.03 <  0.001
Drink     1.14 0.77–1.69 0.522
  1. OR: odds ratio; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval; All analyses used multiple imputations. Imputed data were averaged across the 50 imputed data sets using Rubin’s rule [41]. *Adjusted for maternal age, child sex (female), education, and socioeconomic status