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Table 2 Birth outcomes and child and family characteristics before multiple imputation by external violence exposure quintile, and the association between the pooled violent crimes quintiles and birth outcomes and child and family characteristics.

From: Associations between neighborhood violence during pregnancy and birth outcomes: evidence from São Paulo’s Western Region Birth Cohort

Violent crimes quintile
Number of occurrences
1st quintile
Low: 0–1
2nd quintile
Lower-meddle: 2
3rd quintile
Middle: 3
4th quintile
Higher-middle: 4–7
5th quintile
High: 8–37
OR* (95%CI) p
Variables n % n % n % n % n %   
SGA (N = 5080)
 Yes 116 6.7 78 9 36 7.9 81 7.4 87 9.5 1.06 (1.00–1.14) 0.062
PT (N = 5268)
 Yes 116 6.5 68 7.5 30 6.4 94 8.3 61 6.3 1.02 (0.95–1.09) 0.594
LBW (N = 5268)
 Yes 96 5.4 66 7.3 33 7.0 88 7.7 72 7.5 1.09 (1.02–1.17) 0.014
Fetal sex (N = 5268)
 Female 898 50.2 449 49.5 246 52.1 589 51.8 469 48.7 1.00 (0.96–1.03) 0.937
Maternal age (N = 5268)
  < 20 years 381 21.3 236 26.0 93 19.7 274 24.1 239 24.8 1.03 (0.99–1.07) 0.157
 20–35 years 1191 66.6 561 61.9 327 69.5 745 65.5 626 64.9   Ref.
  > 35 years 216 12.1 110 12.1 52 11.0 118 10.4 99 10.3 0.96 (0.90–1.01) 0.125
Skin color (N = 5267)
 White 1080 60.4 575 63.4 286 60.7 690 60.7 593 61.5   Ref.
 Non-white 707 39.6 332 36.6 186 39.4 447 39.3 371 38.5 1.00 (0.96–1.03) 0.888
SES status (N = 2709)
 Low 144 16.0 92 19.0 45 18.0 135 23.7 128 24.6 1.08 (1.00–1.16) 0.045
 Lower-middle 225 25.1 126 26.0 66 27.9 150 26.4 156 30.0   Ref.
 Middle 126 14.0 84 17.3 40 16.9 91 16.0 79 15.2 0.98 (0.91–1.06) 0.605
 Upper-middle 213 23.7 105 21.7 48 20.3 79 15.2 104 20.0 0.91 (0.85–0.98) 0.013
 High 190 21.2 78 16.1 38 16.0 104 20.0 53 10.2 0.83 (0.80–0.89) < 0.001
Education (N = 3256)
 Incomplete primary 154 13.2 90 16.2 44 15.8 101 14.9 109 18.9 1.07 (1.01–1.14) 0.026
 Complete secondary 934 80.0 439 79.1 216 77.7 551 81.0 452 78.5   Ref.
 Tertiary 79 6.8 26 4.7 18 6.5 28 4.1 15 2.6 0.83 (0.13–0.19) < 0.001
Diabetes (N = 3246)
 Yes 36 3.1 16 2.9 6 2.2 17 2.5 16 2.8 0.95 (0.83–1.09) 0.500
Hypertension (N = 3249)
 Yes 130 11.2 40 7.2 21 7.6 65 9.6 51 8.9 0.95 (0.88–1.03) 0.189
Smoke in pregnancy (N = 3240)
 Yes 161 14.0 86 15.2 37 13.3 90 13.22 83 14.4 0.99 (0.93–1.06) 0.802
Drink in pregnancy (N = 3245)
 Yes 161 13.9 75 13.5 40 14.4 79 11.6 66 11.4 0.94 (0.88–1.01) 0.079
Depression (N = 3251)
 Yes 34 2.9 13 2.3 3 1.1 23 3.4 9 1.6 0.93 (0.81–1.07) 0.329
Physical violence (N = 3236)
 Yes 27 2.3 14 2.5 4 1.5 6 0.9 7 1.2 0.79 (0.66–0.95) 0.013
  1. Quintiles categorized violent crimes within a 1-km from participants’ home address; OR: odds ratio; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval; SGA: small for gestational age; PT preterm; LBW: low birth weight; SES: socioeconomic status. * For the variables: Maternal age, SES status and Education, the values represent relative risk-ratios (RRR)