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Table 1 Characteristics of the participants according to the presence or absence of social isolation by sex (n = 48,958)

From: Association between the social isolation and depressive symptoms after the great East Japan earthquake: findings from the baseline survey of the TMM CommCohort study

  Males (n = 18,423) Females (n = 30,535)
Nonsocial Isolation
(n = 13,114)
Social Isolation
(n = 5309)
P Value Nonsocial Isolation
(n = 23,240)
Social Isolation
(n = 7295)
P Value
Age (continuous)   62.7 (10.3) 60.7 (10.4) < 0.001* 59.4 (11.4) 57.1 (11.2) < 0.001*
Survey year (%) 2013 23.7 21.5 0.007 24.1 22.2 0.003
2014 41.4 42.5 41.4 42.6
2015 34.9 36.0 34.5 35.3
Area (%) Inland 48.4 46.6 0.031 45.3 44.1 0.072
Coast 51.6 53.4 54.7 55.9
Depressive symptoms (%)   15.7 30.0 < 0.001 24.0 43.6 < 0.001
Severity of house damage (%) Undamaged 43.9 47.5 < 0.001** 45.0 50.3 < 0.001**
Half-damaged 46.5 42.7 45.0 39.4
Totally damaged 9.6 9.8 10.0 10.4
Death of family members due to the GEJE (%) One or more 38.1 42.7 < 0.001 36.2 42.0 < 0.001
Education level (%) Junior high school 22.4 22.0 0.039 17.2 18.0 0.141
High school 50.8 49.3 48.7 49.1
College, university, and higher 26.0 28.0 33.4 32.3
Other 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6
Marital status (%) Unmarried 14.5 28.8 < 0.001 19.9 25.5 < 0.001
Number of household members (%) living alone 5.3 11.4 < 0.001 7.3 8.4 0.002
Working status (%) Unemployed 59.5 54.2 < 0.001 43.9 46.9 < 0.001
Smoking habits (%) Smoker 26.5 25.4 0.137 5.8 8.1 < 0.001
Drinking habits (%) Drinker 76.5 70.0 < 0.001 35.6 34.3 0.034
Past or current major illness (%) Hypertension 33.8 33.4 0.62 22.9 19.8 < 0.001
Diabetes mellitus 8.0 7.9 0.769 3.3 3.6 0.201
Hyperlipidemia 9.7 10.9 0.011 13.7 12.5 0.009
Cancer 8.6 7.5 0.009 6.8 6.9 0.951
Coronary artery disease 4.8 5.2 0.201 1.6 1.2 0.023
Stroke 3.7 3.8 0.708 1.7 1.6 0.449
BMI (%) < 18.5 kg/m2 2.0 2.7 < 0.001 7.6 10.1 < 0.001
18.5 to < 25.0 kg/m2 62.1 64.0 67.2 66.3
≥25.0 kg/m2 35.8 33.3 25.2 23.6
Insomnia (%)   13.7 24.6 < 0.001 22.5 34.9 < 0.001
  1. Depressive symptoms, CES-D ≥ 16; social isolation, LSNS-6 < 12; insomnia, AIS ≥ 6
  2. CES-D Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, LSNS-6 Lubben Social Network Scale-6, AIS Athene Insomnia Scale, GEJE Great East Japan Earthquake, BMI body mass index
  3. P value: tested by chi-square test; * tested by student t-test; ** tested by chi-square test for linear trend
  4. Statistical significance, P < 0.05