Skip to main content

Table 5 Place of birth, birth and labour outcomes according to maternal self-reported tobacco use (N = 73)

From: Central Australian Aboriginal women’s pregnancy, labour and birth outcomes following maternal smokeless tobacco (pituri) use, cigarette use or no-tobacco use: a prospective cohort study

  Maternal self-reported tobacco use
Total
N = 73
No-tobacco use
n = 31
Chewer
n = 19
Smoker
n = 23
n (column %, 95 confidence interval)b
Birth location
 Alice Springs Hospital 67 (92, 83–96) 30 (97, 79–99) 17 (89, 65–98) 20 (87, 65–96)
 Other hospitala 4 (3, 1–11) 1 (3, 1–21) 1 (5, 1–31) 2 (9, 2–30)
 Born before arrival (BBA) 2 (5, 2–14) 0 1 (5, 1–31) 1 (4, 1–27)
Method of birthing
 Spontaneous vaginal delivery 43 (59, 47–70) 18 (58, 40–74) 14 (74, 49–89) 11 (48, 28–68)
 Forceps 2 (3, 1–11) 1 (3, 1–21) 0 1 (4, 1–27)
 Ventouse 1 (1, 1–10) 0 1 (5, 1–31) 0
 Elective LUSCS 10 (14, 7–24) 2 (6, 2–23) 3 (16, 5–40) 5 (22, 9–44)
 Emergency LUSCS 17 (23, 15–35) 10 (32, 18–51) 1 (5, 1–31) 6 (26, 12–48)
Post-partum hemorrhagec 30 (41, 100) 14 (45, 47) 7 (37, 23) 9 (39, 30)
 Blood loss mL, Median (range) 675 (500–1670) 900 (500–1670) 650 (500–1300) 550 (500–1100)
 Blood loss 500–999 mL 22 (30, 21–42) 9 (29, 16–48) 6 (32, 14–56) 7 (30, 15–52)
 Blood loss > 1000 mL 8 (11, 5–21) 5 (16, 7–34) 1 (5, 1–31) 2 (9, 2–30)
Viability
 Liveborn 71 (97, 89–99) 30 (97, 79–99) 18 (95, 69–99) 23 (100, −)
 Still born 2 (3, 1–11) 1 (3, 1–21) 1 (5, 1–31) 0 (−)
  1. aOther hospital Katherine, Port Augusta and Adelaide hospital
  2. bPercentages have been rounded for reporting purposes and may not add to 100%
  3. cPost-partum hemorrhage is quantified as > 500 ml within the first 24 h of birth