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Table 2 Most prevalent heatwave-protective answers given by respondents

From: Heatwave-protective knowledge and behaviour among urban populations: a multi-country study in Tunisia, Georgia and Israel

Question Answera N (%)
Symptoms Dehydration-related problems 537 (38.6)
Headache 431 (31.0)
Exhaustion 410 (29.5)
Thermoregulation-related problems 341 (24.5)
Dizziness / fainting 230 (16.5)
Cardiovascular problems 203 (14.6)
Skin problems 202 (14.5)
Respiratory problems 169 (12.1)
Behavioural and cognitive problems 147 (10.6)
Gastrointestinal problems 50 (3.6)
Neuromuscular problems 21 (1.5)
Other general problems 17 (1.2)
Eye problems 13 (0.9)
Deathb 36 (2.6)
Nosebleed 20 (1.4)
Allergy 8 (0.6)
Cancerc 8 (0.6)
Diabetes 6 (0.4)
Seizures 2 (0.1)
Risk groups Elderly 831 (59.7)
Babies / children 671 (48.2)
Physically ill 490 (35.2)
Pregnant women 170 (12.2)
People who perform physical effort / work mainly outdoors 152 (10.9)
People who use medication for chronic disease 71 (5.1)
Obese 39 (2.8)
Handicapped or limited mobility 33 (2.4)
Socially isolated 27 (1.9)
Mentally ill 13 (0.9)
People with lower socio-economic status 10 (0.7)
Substance abusers 1 (0.1)
General public 112 (8.0)
People with light skin 16 (1.1)
Youth 11 (0.8)
Women 11 (0.8)
Women in menopause 9 (0.6)
Smokers 4 (0.2)
Men 3 (0.2)
Heat actions Hydrate 524 (37.6)
Medical care 420 (30.2)
Place person in cool location 399 (28.7)
Cool the body 361 (25.9)
Halt physical activity 120 (8.6)
Adjust clothing 26 (1.9)
Provide local remedyd 70 (5.0)
Provide medication 47 (3.4)
Give food 12 (0.9)
Do not go out 8 (0.6)
Create green spaces 2 (0.1)
Take a hot shower 1 (0.1)
Lose weight 1 (0.1)
Protective measures Stay inside / visit cool areas 716 (51.4)
Increase fluid consumption 688 (49.4)
Adjust clothing 408 (29.3)
Use fan / airconditioning 345 (24.8)
Cool the body 182 (13.1)
Avoid physical activity 121 (8.7)
Use sunscreen 89 (6.4)
Keep windows closed 24 (1.7)
Adjust medication 23 (1.7)
Adjust diet 19 (1.4)
Limit alcohol consumption 2 (0.1)
Use local remedy 14 (1.0)
Drink hot tea 1 (0.1)
Take a hot shower 1 (0.1)
  1. a Correct answers are presented in black, incorrect answers in blue and italic
  2. b Since death is not formally a symptom but a health outcome, we did not include it in the list of correct answers
  3. c Skin cancer was categorized under ‘skin problems’. Cancer without further specification was considered an incorrect answer
  4. d The answer ‘provide local remedy’ was only given by respondents in Tunisia, and refers to a traditional recipe extracted from trees (orange flower water). Since we do not have evidence on its effectiveness, we consider it an incorrect answer