Skip to main content

Table 1 Differences in characteristics between high health literacy and low health literacy groups

From: Relationship between parents’ health literacy and children’s sleep problems in Japan

Characteristic High HL
(n = 255)
Low HL
(n = 99)
t or x2 P-value
Child
 Age (months) 64.6 ± 10.3 63.3 ± 10.2 1.07 0.287
 Sex (boys (%)) 133 (52.2) 56 (56.6) 0.35 0.553
 Teeth decay (non (%)) 203 (79.6) 80 (80.8) 1.95 0.136
 Birth weight (g) 2987.4 ± 445.1 3065.9 ± 399.9 −1.53 0.127
 Number of siblings (n) 2.3 ± 0.8 2.2 ± 0.8 1.33 0.186
 Breakfast (every day (%)) 240 (94.1) 91 (91.9) 0.26 0.474
 Lessons (%) 111 (43.5) 43 (43.4) 0 1.00
 Sleep duration (hours) 10 ± 1.0 9.9 ± 1.1 1.21 0.228
 Game (hours) 0.5 ± 0.8 0.5 ± 0.7 0.84 0.401
 TV (hours) 2.1 ± 1.2 2.1 ± 1.2 0.22 0.826
 BMI (kg/m2) 15.6 ± 1.5 15.6 ± 1.5 −0.13 0.896
 IOTF (problem (%)) 50 (19.6) 20 (20.2) 0 0.882
 CSHQ-J (point) 45.3 ± 6.0 46.8 ± 5.9 −2.04 0.043
Parent
 Age (years) 36.1 ± 5.1 35.9 ± 5.8 0.41 0.685
 Sex (men (%)) 17 (6.7) 5 (5.1) 0.10 0.806
 BMI (kg/m2) 21.1 ± 2.9 22.0 ± 4.0 −2.15 0.032
 Smoking (%) 36 (14.1) 10 (10.1) 0.69 0.380
 Drinking (everyday (%)) 34 (13.3) 7 (7.1) 2.15 0.137
 Material status (married (%)) 238 (93.3) 96 (97.0) 2.01 0.699
 Education level (years) 13.6 ± 1.7 13.1 ± 1.5 2.15 0.032
 Income (> 6 million (%)) 97 (38.0) 28 (28.3) 2.45 0.106
 Sleep duration (hours) 6.8 ± 1.2 6.9 ± 1.2 −0.48 0.633
 PSQI (alright (%)) 165 (64.7) 53 (53.5) 3.26 0.066
  1. Data are expressed as mean ± SD or number (percentage)
  2. HL health literacy, BMI body mass index, IOTF International Obesity Task Force, CSHQ-J The Japanese version of Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire, PSQI Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index