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Table 4 Elasticities, concentration indices, and contributions of determinants to wealth-related inequality for full immunization status in India in 2005–06 and 2015–16

From: Change in full immunization inequalities in Indian children 12–23 months: an analysis of household survey data

Determinants of full immunization 2005–06 2015–16
Elasticity Concentration Index Contribution Percent contribution Elasticity Concentration Index Contribution Percent Contribution
Gender: Female −0.05* −0.04 0.00 0.56% −0.02 0.01 0.00 −0.11%
Birth order (ref: First) 2.83% 1.93%
 Second 0.11 −0.08 − 0.01 −0.24% 0.08* −0.01 0.00 −0.62%
 Third −0.01 −0.02 0.00 0.19% −0.08*** −0.01 0.00 0.90%
 Fourth −0.07 −0.01 0.00 0.10% −0.08*** −0.01 0.00 0.52%
 Fifth or greater −0.21** −0.05 0.01 2.78% −0.11*** −0.01 0.00 1.13%
Religion (ref: Hindu) −0.08% −0.15%
 Muslim 0.01*** −0.04 0.00 −0.08% 0.02*** −0.02 0.00 −0.29%
 Other 0.04 0.00 0.00 > 0.01% 0.04*** 0.00 0.00 0.14%
Caste (ref: general) 2.67% 0.01%
 SC/ST −0.29 −0.03 0.01 2.70% −0.27 0.00 0.00 −0.31%
 OBC 0.00 −0.05 0.00 −0.02% 0.06 0.01 0.00 0.32%
Wealth quintile (ref: Poorest) 6.78% 10.62%
 Poorer −0.25 0.03 −0.01 −1.96% −0.25*** 0.02 0.00 −3.35%
 Middle 0.11*** 0.05 0.01 1.38% 0.10*** 0.02 0.00 1.28%
 Richer 0.34** 0.03 0.01 2.90% 0.38*** 0.02 0.01 6.12%
 Richest 0.53*** 0.03 0.02 4.45% 0.51*** 0.02 0.01 6.57%
Maternal education (ref: no education) 9.03% 7.30%
 Incomplete primary −0.03*** 0.02 0.00 −0.13% −0.07*** 0.01 0.00 −0.42%
 Complete primary 0.00*** 0.02 0.00 0.01% −0.04*** 0.01 0.00 −0.21%
 Incomplete secondary 0.35*** 0.08 0.03 8.20% 0.14*** 0.04 0.01 4.50%
 Complete secondary 0.10*** 0.01 0.01 0.25% 0.13*** 0.01 0.00 1.02%
 Higher 0.17*** 0.02 0.00 0.70% 0.27*** 0.01 0.00 2.41%
Antenatal care (ref: no visits) 13.08% 38.46%
 Insufficient (i.e., < four visits) −0.18*** 0.24 −0.04 −12.01% −0.16*** 0.08 −0.01 −9.99%
 Sufficient (i.e., ≥ four visits) 0.51*** 0.18 0.09 25.09% 0.38*** 0.16 0.06 48.45%
Geographic setting: Rural −0.49 0.03 −0.01 −3.97% − 0.50*** 0.05 − 0.02 −18.41%
Difficulty reaching a health facility (ref: no problem) 4.95% 8.45%
 Not a big problem −0.07 −0.01 0.00 0.12% −0.04** −0.01 0.00 0.44%
 Big problem −0.35* −0.05 0.02 4.83% −0.29*** −0.04 0.01 8.01%
Region (ref: Central) −5.15% 14.32%
 East −0.22*** 0.14 −0.03 −8.46% −0.32*** 0.06 −0.02 −14.53%
 North 0.11*** 0.02 0.00 0.66% 0.15*** 0.01 0.00 1.11%
 Northeast −0.01 0.00 0.00 > 0.01% −0.03*** −0.01 0.00 0.12%
 South 0.15*** 0.04 0.01 1.54% 0.20 0.00 0.00 0.61%
 West 0.10*** 0.03 0.00 1.11% 0.11*** −0.02 0.00 −1.64%
  1. *** = p-value < 0.001; ** = p-value < 0.01; * = p-value < 0.05