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Table 2 Baseline characteristics by survival status of women in the baseline survey of the Kaunas HAPIEE study (2006–2008)

From: Lowered cognitive function and the risk of the first events of cardiovascular diseases: findings from a cohort study in Lithuania

Variables Living status P from Anova
Alive and no non-fatal CVD event (n = 2762) 1st CVD event (n = 198) Dead from other than CVD causes of death (n = 124)
Age, years 55.5 ± 0.14 61.5 ± 0.56 b 58.9 ± 0.77 b, c < 0.001
Immediate verbal recall suma, score 23.5 ± 0.07 21.8 ± 0.28 b 22.7 ± 0.34 b < 0.001
Delayed verbal recalla, score 8.40 ± 0.03 7.69 ± 0.13 b 7.90 ± 0.14b < 0.001
Semantic verbal fluencya 22.7 ± 0.12 20.5 ± 0.46b 21.4 ± 0.63 < 0.001
Numerical abilitya, score 2.92 ± 0.01 2.82 ± 0.05 2.78 ± 0.06 0.028
Cognitive speed and attentiona 17.9 ± 0.09 16.1 ± 0.35 b 15.7 ± 0.41 b < 0.001
Composite score of cognitive functiona 0.11 ± 0.01 0.02 ± 0.04 0.03 ± 0.05 0.032
Systolic blood pressurea, mm Hg 131.6 ± 0.37 142.1 ± 1.54 b, 134.0 ± 1.83 c < 0.001
Diastolic blood pressurea, mm Hg 86.6 ± 0.21 91.0 ± 0.89 b, 87.5 ± 1.02 c < 0.001
Total cholesterola, mmol/L 6.04 ± 0.02 6.08 ± 0.08 5.99 ± 0.10 0.791
HDL cholesterola, mmol/L 1.63 ± 0.01 1.47 ± 0.03 b 1.60 ± 0.04c < 0.001
LDL cholesterola, mmol/L 3.79 ± 0.02 3.87 ± 0.07 3.76 ± 0.09 0.562
Triglyceridea, mmol/L 1.35 ± 0.02 1.62 ± 0.07 b, 1.33 ± 0.06 c < 0.001
Fasting blood glucosea, mmol/L 5.71 ± 0.02 5.95 ± 0.10 b 5.82 ± 0.10 0.004
Body mass indexa, kg/m2 28.8 ± 0.11 31.6 ± 0.45 b 30.3 ± 0.54 b < 0.001
Physical activity in leisure timea, hours/week 19.7 ± 0.21 20.4 ± 0.92 17.1 ± 0.87 0.025
Absolute alcohola, drinks/week 21.0 ± 0.63 15.1 ± 1.84 b 19.8 ± 3.12 0.043
PWBa, score 38.4 ± 0.11 37.1 ± 0.50 b 37.1 ± 0.59 b 0.001
     P from χ2
Diabetes mellitus % (n) 5.1 (137) 14.8 (29) b 9.2 (11)b < 0.001
Arterial hypertension % (n) 51.5 (1417) 74.7 (148) b, 59.7 (74) c < 0.001
Body mass index, % (n)     < 0.001
  < 25.0 kg/m2 26.6 (735) 15.7 (31) b 16.9 (21) b  
 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 37.0 (1020) 26.9 (53) b 39.5 (49)  
  > = 30.0 kg/m2 36.4 (1005) 57.4 (113) b 43.5 (54) c  
Smoking habits % (n)     0.036
 Smokers 14.9 (411) 10.6 (21)b 13.7 (17)  
 Former smokers 8.8 (243) 7.1 (14) 15.3 (19)b  
 Never smokers 76.3 (2107) 82.3 (163) 71.0 (88)  
Marital status % (n)     0.004
 Single 6.3 (174) 6.0 (12) 7.3 (9)  
 Married 60.8 (1678) 54.8 (109) 50.0 (62) b  
 Co-habiting 1.3 (35) 0.0 (0) 1.6 (2)  
 Divorced 18.0 (496) 15.6 (31) 21.0 (26)  
 Widowed 13.7 (378) 23.6 (47) b 20.2 (25)  
Education % (n)     < 0.001
 Primary 2.8 (78) 8.6 (17) b 7.3 (9) b  
 Vocational 5.4 (148) 8.1 (16) 10.6 (13) b  
 Secondary 25.7 (709) 27.3 (54) 23.6 (29)  
 College 28.7 (792) 32.3 (64) 29.3 (36)  
 University 37.5 (1035) 23.7 (47) b 29.3 (36)  
Depression scale score % (n)     0.129
  > = 4 26.2 (711) 32.7 (64) 28.6 (34)  
  < 4 73.8 (2002) 67.3 (132) 71.4 (85)  
Cognitive function % (n)     0.048
 Normal 89.3 (2467) 84.3 (167) 85.5 (106)  
 Lowered 10.7 (295) 15.7 (31) 14.5 (18)  
PWB % (n)     0.005
 Higher 60.6 (1552) 51.1 (91) b 50.0 (57)  
 Lower 39.4 (1010) 48.9 (87) b 50.0 (57)  
  1. a Age-adjusted means and standard errors. b p < 0.05 compared to alive and no non-fatal CVD event group, Bonferroni test, c p < 0.05 compared to 1st CVD event group, Bonferroni test
  2. CVD cardiovascular diseases, HAPIEE Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe, HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, PWB psychological well-being, SE standard error