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Table 1 Baseline characteristics by survival status of men in the Kaunas HAPIEE study (2006–2008)

From: Lowered cognitive function and the risk of the first events of cardiovascular diseases: findings from a cohort study in Lithuania

Variables Living status P from Anova
Alive and no non-fatal CVD event (n = 2042) 1st CVD event (n = 343) Dead from other than CVD causes of death (n = 175)
Age, years 55.4 ± 0.17 59.2 ± 0.44 b 60.3 ± 0.51 b < 0.001
Immediate verbal recall suma, score 22.1 ± 0.08 20.3 ± 0.22 b 20.2 ± 0.30 b < 0.001
Delayed verbal recalla, score 7.82 ± 0.04 7.10 ± 0.10 b 6.96 ± 0.14b < 0.001
Semantic verbal fluencya 22.8 ± 0.14 21.3 ± 0.31b 21.0 ± 0.47b < 0.001
Numerical abilitya, score 3.15 ± 0.02 3.00 ± 0.04 b 3.04 ± 0.06 < 0.001
Cognitive speed and attentiona 16.6 ± 0.10 15.3 ± 0.26 b 14.4 ± 0.35 b < 0.001
Composite score of cognitive functiona −0.06 ± 0.01 −0.22 ± 0.03 b −0.18 ± 0.05 < 0.001
Systolic blood pressurea, mm Hg 142.0 ± 0.43 149.3 ± 1.20 b 145.6 ± 1.64 < 0.001
Diastolic blood pressurea, mm Hg 91.9 ± 0.27 95.4 ± 0.74 b, 92.9 ± 0.99 c < 0.001
Total cholesterola, mmol/L 5.82 ± 0.02 5.92 ± 0.06 5.56 ± 0.09b, c 0.002
HDL cholesterola, mmol/L 1.43 ± 0.01 1.36 ± 0.02 b 1.50 ± 0.03 b, c < 0.001
LDL cholesterola, mmol/L 3.73 ± 0.02 3.81 ± 0.06 3.46 ± 0.08 b, c 0.001
Triglyceridea, mmol/L 1.47 ± 0.02 1.72 ± 0.07 b 1.29 ± 0.05 c < 0.001
Fasting blood glucosea, mmol/L 5.67 ± 0.02 5.88 ± 0.08 b, 5.78 ± 0.09 0.008
Body mass indexa, kg/m2 28.0 ± 0.09 29.1 ± 0.25 b 27.1 ± 0.38 b, c < 0.001
Physical activity in leisure timea, hours/week 17.1 ± 0.26 17.5 ± 0.72 16.8 ± 1.05 0.783
Absolute alcohola, drinks/week 60.7 ± 2.44 76.4 ± 9.51 62.1 ± 9.99 0.09
PWBa, score 39.9 ± 0.12 39.1 ± 0.31 b 37.5 ± 0.45 b, c < 0.001
     P from χ2
Diabetes mellitus % (n) 5.2 (104) 8.8 (29) b 10.8 (18) b 0.001
Arterial hypertension % (n) 66.6 (1360) 77.8 (266) b 75.0 (129) < 0.001
Body mass index, % (n)     < 0.001
  < 25.0 kg/m2 24.6 (503) 18.4 (99)b 31.8 (56) c  
 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 46.3 (945) 42.0 (144) 43.2 (76)  
  > = 30.0 kg/m2 29.1 (594) 39.7 (136) b 25.0 (44) c  
Smoking habits % (n)     < 0.001
 Smokers 35.4 (722) 41.1 (141) 45.4 (79) b  
 Former smokers 27.0 (551) 30.9 (106)b 28.7 (50)  
 Never smokers 37.7 (769) 28.0 (96) b 25.9 (45) b  
Marital status % (n)     0.003
 Single 2.0 (41) 2.6 (9) 1.7 (3)  
 Married 84.8 (1732) 80.5 (276) 76.0 (133) b  
 Co-habiting 2.2 (44) 1.5 (5) 2.3 (4)  
 Divorced 8.0 (164) 9.0 (31) 12.6 (22)  
 Widowed 3.0 (61) 6.4 (22) b 7.4 (13)b  
Education % (n)     < 0.001
 Primary 2.7 (56) 7.3 (25) b 8.0 (14) b  
 Vocational 6.6 (135) 13.1 (45) b 16.6 (29) b  
 Secondary 33.9 (693) 34.1 (117) 35.4 (62)  
 College 19.9 (407) 17.5 (60) 19.4 (34)  
 University 36.8 (751) 28.0 (96) b 20.6 (36) b  
Depression scale score % (n)     < 0.001
  > = 4 13.0 (260) 18.6 (63) b 22.2 (37) b  
  < 4 87.0 (1742) 81.4 (276) b 77.8 (130) b  
Cognitive function % (n)     0.025
 Normal 82.4 (1683) 77.3 (265) 77.1 (135)  
 Lowered 17.6 (359) 22.7 (78) 22.9 (40)  
PWB % (n)     < 0.001
 Higher 57.6 (1089) 52.2 (167) 39.8 (64) b, c  
 Lower 42.4 (800) 47.8 (153) 60.2 (97) b, c  
  1. a Age-adjusted means and standard errors. b p < 0.05 compared to alive and no non-fatal CVD event group, Bonferroni test, c p < 0.05 compared to 1st CVD event group, Bonferroni test
  2. CVD cardiovascular diseases, HAPIEE Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe, HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, PWB psychological well-being, SE standard error