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Table 3 Food Security Trajectories by Food Bank Type: Integrated Within CRC, Offering a Choice Model, and Offering Additional Programming

From: The impact of novel and traditional food bank approaches on food insecurity: a longitudinal study in Ottawa, Canada

Predictors of Food Insecurity (on HFSSM score) CRC   Choice model Additional programming
Coef. 95% CI Coef. 95% CI Coef. 95% CI
CRC (ref. not in CRC) −.595** [−.993, −.196]
Choice (ref. hamper model) −.534** [−.894, −.174]
Additional programming (ref. no additional programming) −.164 [−.518, .191]
Age at baseline −.028** [−.042, −.013] −.028** [−.042, −.013] −.029** [−.044, −.015]
Gender (ref. men)
 Women −.384* [−.755, −.014] −.395* [−.765, −.024] −.397* [−.7731, −.021]
 Gender diverse .468 [−.555, 1.491] .474 [−.550, 1.498] .596 [−.441, 1.633]
Ethnicity (ref. First Nations)
 White .391 [−.218, .999] .357 [−.252, .966] .376 [−.240, .992]
 Visible minority .185 [−.311, .681] .159 [−.336, .654] .139 [−.363, .641]
Born in Canada (ref. yes)
 No −.572* [−1.107, −.037] −.537* [− 1.070, −.003] −.512 [− 1.052, .0279]
Income (ref. $0–$599)
 $600–$1799 −.151 [−.490, .189] −.143 [−.483, .197] −.154 [−.495, .188]
 $1800 + −.425 [−.864, .0138] −.411 [−.850, .0278] −.439 [−.880, .001]
Dependents (ref. yes)
 No 0.185 [−.153, .5222] .218 [−.120, .555] .193 [−.146, .532]
Marital statusa (ref. married)
 Not marrieda −.243 [−.585, .099] −.249 [−.591, .094] −.224 [−.568, .120]
Physical health (PCS) −.038** [−.050, −.026] −.037** [−.049, −.0248] −.037** [−.049, −.0249]
Mental health (MCS) −.051** [−.061, −.040] −.050** [−.061, −.0394] −.050** [−.061, −.039]
Food bank use (ref. Accessed yes)
 No .550** [.163, .937] .549** [.158, .932] .541** [.152, .929]
Time (ref. baseline)
 6 months −.788** [−1.216, −.359] −.780** [− 1.208, −.351] −.774** [− 1.203, −.345]
 12 months −.989** [−1.396, −.583] −.987** [− 1.393, −.581] −.979** [−1.386, −.571]
 18 months − 1.090** [− 1.498, −.681] −1.088** [− 1.496, −.680] −1.080** [− 1.488, −.671]
Constant 11.17** [10.02, 12.32] 11.13** [9.98, 12.29] 11.10** [9.93, 12.27]
Random-effects Parameters Estimate 95% CI Estimate 95% CI Estimate 95% CI
 SD (_cons) 1.439 [1.300, 1.592] 1.441 [1.303, 1.594] 1.462 [1.323, 1.617]
 SD (Residual) 1.367 [1.296, 1.443] 1.367 [1.295, 1.442] 1.366 [1.295, 1.442]
Intraclass correlation 0.53 [0.46–0.58] 0.56 [0.5–0.62] 0.51 [0.44–0.58]
  1. Notes. * indicates p < 0.05. ** indicates p < 0.01. a‘Married’ includes living with a partner