Skip to main content

Table 2 Demographic Characteristics by Level of Food Security (Using Aggregated Responses from All Four Waves of Data Collection)

From: The impact of novel and traditional food bank approaches on food insecurity: a longitudinal study in Ottawa, Canada

  Food secure (N = 192) Marginally food insecure (N = 226) Moderately food insecure (N = 446) Severely food insecure (N = 409)
Age (years)
 Mean (SD) 47.2 (14.9) 46.1 (14.0) 43.9 (13.0) 42.2 (12.0)
Gender
 Men 72 (37.5%) 99 (43.8%) 158 (35.4%) 173 (42.3%)
 Women 112 (58.3%) 106 (46.9%) 257 (57.6%) 208 (50.9%)
 Gender diverse 8 (4.2%) 21 (9.3%) 31 (7.0%) 28 (6.8%)
 Missing 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
Education
 Some college degree or less 118 (61.5%) 141 (62.4%) 257 (57.6%) 274 (67.0%)
 College degree 26 (13.5%) 29 (12.8%) 101 (22.6%) 61 (14.9%)
 Bachelor’s or graduate degree 36 (18.8%) 32 (14.2%) 56 (12.6%) 47 (11.5%)
 Other 12 (6.2%) 24 (10.6%) 32 (7.2%) 27 (6.6%)
 Missing 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
Household income (CAN$)
 0–599 9 (4.7%) 21 (9.3%) 50 (11.2%) 66 (16.1%)
 600–1199 51 (26.6%) 81 (35.8%) 183 (41.0%) 187 (45.7%)
 1200–1799 46 (24.0%) 56 (24.8%) 100 (22.4%) 72 (17.6%)
 1800–2399 23 (12.0%) 18 (8.0%) 37 (8.3%) 22 (5.4%)
 2400 or more 21 (10.9%) 16 (7.1%) 20 (4.5%) 21 (5.1%)
 Missing 42 (21.9%) 34 (15.0%) 56 (12.6%) 41 (10.0%)
Born in Canada
 Yes 108 (56.2%) 139 (61.5%) 330 (74.0%) 321 (78.5%)
 No 77 (40.1%) 69 (30.5%) 95 (21.3%) 77 (18.8%)
 Missing 7 (3.6%) 18 (8.0%) 21 (4.7%) 11 (2.7%)
Ethnicity
 White 99 (51.6%) 109 (48.2%) 251 (56.3%) 236 (57.7%)
 First Nations/Metis/ Inuit 12 (6.2%) 15 (6.6%) 41 (9.2%) 46 (11.2%)
 Visible minority 81 (42.2%) 102 (45.1%) 154 (34.5%) 127 (31.1%)
 Missing 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
Marital status
 Not marrieda 116 (60.4%) 146 (64.6%) 323 (72.4%) 298 (72.9%)
 Marrieda 74 (38.5%) 74 (32.7%) 115 (25.8%) 107 (26.2%)
 Missing 2 (1.0%) 6 (2.7%) 8 (1.8%) 4 (1.0%)
Dependents
 No dependent 93 (48.4%) 120 (53.1%) 234 (52.5%) 232 (56.7%)
 one or more dependents 96 (50.0%) 98 (43.4%) 201 (45.1%) 171 (41.8%)
 Missing 3 (1.6%) 8 (3.5%) 11 (2.5%) 6 (1.5%)
Physical health (SF12 subscale)
 Mean (SD) 47.2 (10.7) 45.7 (11.2) 43.7 (11.3) 42.5 (10.7)
Mental health (SF12 subscale)
 Mean (SD) 48.8 (11.5) 44.5 (12.2) 39.6 (11.4) 35.8 (10.8)
Frequency of use of food bankb
 0 34 (17.7%) 30 (13.3%) 39 (8.7%) 39 (9.5%)
 1 36 (18.8%) 55 (24.3%) 101 (22.6%) 90 (22.0%)
 2 39 (20.3%) 38 (16.8%) 79 (17.7%) 86 (21.0%)
 3 or more 83 (43.2%) 103 (45.6%) 225 (50.4%) 193 (47.2%)
 Missing 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 2 (0.4%) 1 (0.2%)
  1. Notes. ‘Missing’ values refer to unanswered questions within surveys. a‘Married’ includes living with a partner. b‘Frequency of use of food bank’ refers to the previous 3 months