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Table 1 Descriptive Characteristics of 15–49-Year-Old Female GBV Survivors Seeking Psychosocial Support in Eastern Ukraine by Violence Type, N = 8525, 2016–2017

From: Factors associated with experiencing sexual violence among female gender-based violence survivors in conflict-afflicted eastern Ukraine

  Total Sexual violence a Physical violence Non-contact violence b p-value c
  n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)  
  8525 (100.0) 220 (2.6) 2928 (34.3) 5377 (63.1)  
Age at incident [median (IQR)] 33 (28–39) 28 (22, 34) 34 (28, 39) 33 (28, 39) < 0.001
IDP (vs. local) status at incident 2002 (23.5) 78 (35.5) 545 (18.6) 1379 (25.6) 0.001
Marital status
 Single or widowed 1818 (21.3) 120 (54.5) 478 (16.3) 1220 (22.7) < 0.001
 Married or Cohabitating 5242 (61.5) 68 (30.9) 2069 (70.7) 3105 (57.8)  
 Divorced or Separated 1465 (17.1) 32 (14.6) 381 (13.0) 1052 (19.5)  
Number of children < 18
 No children 2324 (37.4) 108 (49.1) 778 (26.7) 1438 (26.9) < 0.001
 1+ child 6165 (72.6) 112 (50.9) 2140 (73.3) 3913 (73.1)  
Employment
 Professional 2025 (23.8) 56 (25.5) 654 (22.4) 1315 (24.5) 0.089
 General labor 1814 (21.4) 38 (17.3) 659 (22.6) 1117 (20.8) 0.055
 Unpaid labor 2714 (32.0) 38 (17.3) 909 (31.2) 1767 (33.0) < 0.001
 Not in the workforce 1709 (20.1) 65 (29.6) 621 (21.3) 1023 (19.1) < 0.001
 Student 233 (2.7) 23 (10.5) 71 (2.4) 139 (2.6) < 0.001
Incident
 Recurrence of incident
  Once 5014 (60.7) 173 (79.0) 2197 (76.1) 2644 (51.3) < 0.001
  Multiple times 3244 (39.3) 46 (21.0) 690 (23.9) 2508 (4871)  
 Place of incident
  Client or common home 6317 (74.1) 108 (49.1) 2369 (80.9) 3840 (71.4) < 0.001
  Perpetrator’s home 586 (6.9) 23 (10.5) 193 (6.6) 370 (6.9) 0.092
  At an institution 793 (9.3) 49 (22.3) 109 (3.7) 635 (11.8) < 0.001
  Outdoors 829 (9.7) 40 (18.2) 257 (8.8) 532 (9.9) < 0.001
Perpetrators
 Number of perpetrators
  1 7337 (86.1) 199 (90.5) 2666 (91.1) 4472 (83.2) < 0.001
  2+ 790 (9.3) 12 (5.5) 110 (3.8) 668 (12.4) < 0.001
  Unknown 398 (4.7) 9 (4.1) 152 (5.2) 237 (4.4) 0.248
 Sex of perpetrator
  Male 6896 (80.9) 218 (99.1) 2668 (91.1) 4010 (74.6) < 0.001
  Female/Both 1629 (19.1) 2 (0.9) 260 (8.9) 1367 (25.4)  
 Age of perpetrator
  Under 26 690 (8.1) 32 (14.6) 171 (5.8) 487 (9.1) < 0.001
  26–40 4247 (49.8) 115 (52.3) 1672 (57.1) 2460 (45.8) < 0.001
  Over 40 3109 (36.5) 64 (29.1) 920 (31.4) 2125 (39.5) < 0.001
  Unknown 479 (5.6) 9 (4.1) 165 (5.6) 305 (5.7) 0.607
 Relationship to perpetrator
  Intimate partner 5060 (59.4) 57 (25.9) 2165 (73.9) 2838 (52.8) < 0.001
  Family 1497 (17.6) 24 (10.9) 309 (10.6) 1164 (21.7) < 0.001
  No relation 1796 (21.1) 135 (61.4) 413 (14.1) 1248 (23.2) < 0.001
  Unknown 172 (2.0) 4 (1.8) 41 (1.4) 127 (2.4) 0.009
 Perpetrator’s occupation
  Professional 1679 (19.7) 60 (27.3) 384 (13.1) 1235 (23.0) < 0.001
  General labor 2943 (34.5) 48 (21.8) 1238 (42.3) 1657 (30.8) < 0.001
  Not in labor force 1819 (21.3) 30 (13.6) 672 (23.0) 1117 (20.8) 0.001
  Army or police 328 (3.9) 13 (5.9) 100 (3.4) 215 (4.0) 0.109
  Non gov. soldier 218 (2.6) 0 (0.0) 146 (5.0) 72 (1.3) < 0.001
  Other 806 (9.5) 22 (10.0) 221 (7.6) 563 (10.5) < 0.001
  Unknown 732 (8.6) 47 (21.4) 167 (5.7) 518 (9.6) < 0.001
 Demobilized soldier
  No 7077 (83.0) 168 (76.4) 2330 (79.6) 4579 (85.2) < 0.001
  Yes 557 (6.5) 11 (5.0) 291 (9.9) 255 (4.7) < 0.001
  Unknown 891 (10.5) 41 (18.6) 307 (10.5) 543 (10.1) < 0.001
  1. Note. GBV Gender-based violence, IDP Internally displaced person, IQR Interquartile range, NGO Non-governmental organization
  2. a Includes rape and sexual assault. Because the GBV categories were mutually exclusive, sexual violence survivors may also have experienced other types of violence
  3. b Includes economic and psychological violence
  4. c p-value based on Pearson’s chi-square, Fisher’s exact or median test