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Table 5 Changes in self-reported health variables pre-COVID-19 and during COVID-19 by minority and non-minority adults ages 40–100 in the U.S

From: COVID-19 pandemic-related changes in wellness behavior among older Americans

Population Health variable Pandemic condition Paired-sample t test Effect sizeb
Pre-pandemic Pandemic Change
Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD t Significant at α = 0.05?a d Label
Minority Physical activity 3.48 1.63 3.02 1.73 −0.46 1.32 18.0 Yes 0.35 Small
Food security 6.78 2.12 7.13 2.21 0.36 1.59 −11.7 Yes −0.23 Small
Nutrition 52.3 11.7 51.7 12.0 −0.57 7.00 4.16 Yes 0.08
Quality-of-life 2.24 5.64 3.11 6.11 0.86 5.01 −8.85 Yes −0.17
Non-minority White Physical activity 3.38 1.71 2.99 1.78 −0.39 1.13 29.9 Yes 0.35 Small
Food security 7.22 1.91 7.40 1.94 0.18 1.21 −12.9 Yes −0.15
Nutrition 51.1 11.7 50.7 11.9 −0.41 5.72 6.18 Yes 0.07
Quality-of-life 3.15 6.56 3.43 6.41 0.28 5.04 −4.68 Yes −0.06
  1. aMinority n = 2629, df = 2638; non-minority n = 7330, df = 7329; 2-tailed test. All tests would also have been significant at α = 0.001
  2. bCohen’s d [40] using the common interpretive categories (small, medium, large)