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Table 4 Changes in self-reported health variables pre-COVID-19 and during COVID-19 by adults ages 40–100 in the U.S

From: COVID-19 pandemic-related changes in wellness behavior among older Americans

Health variable Pandemic condition Paired-sample t test Effect sizeb
Pre-pandemic Pandemic Change
Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD t Significant at α = 0.05? d Label
Physical activity 3.41 1.69 3.00 1.76 −0.41 1.18 34.8 Yes 0.35 Small
Food security 7.10 1.98 7.33 2.02 .023 1.32 17.4 Yes −0.17
Nutrition 51.4 11.7 51.0 11.9 −0.45 6.08 7.45 Yes 0.08
Quality-of-life 2.91 6.34 3.34 6.33 0.43 5.04 −8.54 Yes −0.09
  1. n = 9969
  2. adf = 9968; 2-tailed test. All tests would also have been significant at α = 0.05
  3. bCohen’s d using the common interpretive categories (small, medium, large) [40]