Skip to main content

Table 3 Multivariable analysis: Association between food insecurity and contact with a mental health professional

From: Association between food insecurity and access to a mental health professional: cross-sectional analysis of NHANES 2007–2014

Mental Health Professional   Odds Ratio 95% CI p-value
Food security Secure Ref   
Insecure 1.32 1.07, 1.63 0.009
MDD No ref   
Yes 4.04 3.19, 5.11 < 0.001
Age   0.99 0.98, 0.99 0.001
Gender Male Ref   
Female 1.15 0.98, 1.35 0.073
Race/ethnicity White Ref   
Hispanic 0.89 0.73, 1.08 0.247
Black 0.65 0.52, 0.80 < 0.001
Other 0.71 0.53, 0.94 0.016
Marital status Married Ref   
Widowed 1.06 0.75, 1.48 0.75
Divorced/separated 1.73 1.35, 2.21 < 0.001
Never married 1.47 1.17, 1.83 0.001
Living with partner 1.12 0.88, 1.43 0.35
Education level <High school Ref   
High school graduate 1.44 1.13, 1.83 0.004
>High school 2.16 1.73, 2.69 < 0.001
Born outside US No Ref   
Yes 0.77 0.59, 0.99 0.041
Insurance Private Ref   
None 0.79 0.61, 1.02 0.08
Medicare 1.36 0.90, 2.07 0.152
Public, not Medicare 2.02 1.62, 2.52 < 0.001
Smoking Never Ref   
Current 1.67 1.34, 2.08 < 0.001
Former 1.41 1.12, 1.76 0.003
SNAP No Ref   
Yes 1.36 1.10, 1.70 0.005
WIC No Ref   
Yes 0.70 0.52, 0.94 0.016
Emergency food (food pantry, soup kitchen) No Ref   
Yes 1.48 1.16, 1.88 0.002
Income-to-poverty ratio   1.04 0.97, 1.12 0.28
DM No Ref   
Yes 0.78 0.63, 0.96 0.021
Dyslipidemia No Ref   
Yes 0.88 0.75, 1.05 0.152
HTN No Ref   
Yes 1.12 0.91, 1.39 0.284
Cardiovascular disease No Ref   
Yes 1.12 0.82, 1.54 0.461
  1. We used multivariable logistic regression models to test the association between FI and contact with a MHP, controlling for all demographic and clinical covariates. CI confidence interval, MDD major depressive disorder, SNAP Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, WIC The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program of Women, Infants, and Children, DM diabetes, HTN hypertension