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Table 8 Quit intention outcomes

From: The effectiveness of graphic health warnings on tobacco products: a systematic review on perceived harm and quit intentions

No. Author(s), publication year Group Quit Intentions OR or Beta Measures
Pre Post
2 Borland et al., 2009* Australia 1.68 2.04 NA Cognitive responses combined two questions: “Extent to which the warnings both made the respondent think about the health risks of smoking” and “made them more likely to quit smoking”
UK 1.95 1.81 NA
Canada 1.93 1.84 NA
3 Brewer et al., 2016 NA 2.3 (0.9) 2.7 (1.0) NA Quit intentions combined three questions: “How likely are you to quit smoking in the next month?”, “How much do you plan to quit smoking in the next month?” and “How interested are you in quitting smoking in the next month?”
4 Brewer et al., 2019 NA 0.26 (0.18, 0.35) 0.16 (0.07, 0.24 NA Quit intentions combines 3 questions: “How interested are you in quitting smoking in the next month?”, “How likely are you to quit smoking in the next month?” and “Are you planning to quit smoking”
6 Durkin et al., 2015 Pre PP NA NA 36.10% (OR:1.00) “Do you intend to quit in the next month?”
Late transition NA NA 42% (OR: 1.42)
Post 1 year PP NA NA 35.60% (OR: 0.98)
7 Elton-Marshall et al., 2015 NA 9.0% 18.0% NA “To what extent, if at all, do the health warnings on cigarette packs make you more likely to quit smoking?”
8 Fathelrahman et al., 2010 NA 30 (42.9%) 28 (40.0%) NA “Planning to quit smoking in the future (within the next month, within the next 6 months, sometime in the future beyond six months or not planning to quit)”
9 Fathelrahman et al., 2013 NA 418 (41.1%) 239 (29.8%) NA “any interest in quitting”
11 Gravely et al., 2016a NA 20.6 31.3 OR: 1.76 “To what extent do the health warnings on cigarette packs make you think about quitting smoking?”
12 Gravely et al., 2016b NA 19.8% (95% CI 14.6; 26.4) 20.5% (95% CI 15.2; 27.0) NA “Are you planning to quit using smokeless tobacco”: Within the next month; Within the next 6 months; Sometime in the future beyond 6 months; Not planning to quit
13 Green et al., 2014 NA 13.50% 26.60% OR: 2.69 (95% CI = 1.75–4.15) “To what extent, if at all, do the warning labels on cigarette packs make you more likely to quit smoking”
15 Hall et al., 2018 NA 2.3 (0.9) 2.57 (1.07) NA Quit intentions combined 3 questions: “How much do you plan to quit smoking in the next month?”, “How interested are you in quitting smoking in the next month?” and “How likely are you to quit smoking in the next month?”
16 Hitchman et al., 2014 NA NA NA OR: −0.504 (×2 = 6.48) “To what extent, if at all, do the warning labels on cigarette packs make you more likely to quit smoking”
19 Li et al., 2015 NA 2.1 1.9 NA Cognitive response combined 3 questions: “made them think about the health risks of smoking”, “made them more likely to quit smoking” and “if ‘warning labels on cigarette packages’ motivated them to think about quitting in the past 6 months”
20 Lin et al., 2016 Thailand 0.49 (0.06) 0.61 (0.06) NA Cognitive response combined 2 questions: “made them think about the health risks of smoking” and “made them more likely to quit smoking”
Malaysia (wave 2–4) 0.07 (0.06) 1.01 (0.06) NA
Malaysia (wave 4–6) 1.01 (0.06) 0.47 (0.06) NA
23 McQueen et al., 2015 NA 130 (71%) 133 (73%) NA “made them think about quitting”
24 Nagelhout et al., 2016 UK NA NA OR: 1.34 Cognitive responses combined 3 questions: “To what extent, if at all, do the warning labels make you think about the health risks of smoking?”, “To what extent, if at all, do the warning labels on cigarette packs make you more likely to quit smoking?” and “In the past 6 months, have warning labels on cigarette packages led you to think about quitting?”
France NA NA OR: 0.7
26 Nicholson et al., 2017 NA 50 54 NA “Perceive warning labels effective to quit or stay quit”
27 Osman et al., 2016 NA NA NA OR: 1.21 “Their intention to quit smoking”
28 Parada et al., 2017* NA 2.4 (mean) 2.6 NA Three questions: “How interested are you in quitting smoking in the next month,” “How much do you plan to quit smoking in the next month?” and “How likely are you to quit smoking in the next month?”
31 Schneider et al., 2012 NA NA NA 18.59 (6.31) Motivation to quit was assessed with four items: What extent the warnings induced them to: “consider ceasing their cigarette consumption”, “consider reducing their cigarette consumption”, “think about the health risks associated with smoking” and “refrain from smoking a cigarette at the moment”
34 Yong et al., 2013 NA 27.9 (2.37) 42.0 (2.19) NA “To what extent, if at all, do the health warnings on cigarette packs make you more likely to quit smoking?”
  1. *Results generated online from web plot digitize