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Table 6 Formatting of GHWs

From: The effectiveness of graphic health warnings on tobacco products: a systematic review on perceived harm and quit intentions

No. Author(s), publication year Group Graphic: Size (front) % Graphic: Size (back) % Graphic: Location Graphic: Image concept1 Graphic: congruency2 Graphic: Colour Text: Size % Text: Location Text: Source attribution Text only GHW Quitline
1 Anshari et al., 2018 Australia 75 90 Front & back Negative Congruent Colour 25 Front & back No source No Yes
Canada 75 75 Front, back & sides Mixed Congruent Colour 37 Front, back & sides Health Canada No Yes
Mexico 30 100 Front & back Negative Congruent Colour 100 Back No source No Yes
2 Borland et al., 2009 Australia (Wave2) NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Yes No
Australia (Wave5) 30 90 Front & back Negative Congruent Colour 15 Front & back Health authority warning No Yes
UK NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Yes No
Canada 50 50 Front & back Negative Congruent Colour 20 Front & back Health Canada No No
3 Brewer et al., 2016 Pictorial (Pre & Post) 50 50 Front & back Negative Congruent Colour 12.5 Front & back US HHS No No
4 Brewer et al., 2019 Complete sample 50 50 Front & back Negative Congruent Colour 15 Front & back US HHS No No
5 Cho et al., 2018 Australia 75 90 Front & back Negative Congruent Colour 25 Front & back No source No Yes
Canada 75 75 Front, back & package inserts Mixed Congruent Colour 37 Front, back & package inserts Health Canada No Yes
Mexico 30 100 Front & back Negative Congruent Colour 100 Back No source No Yes
6 Durkin et al., 2015 Pre PP 30 90 Front & back Negative Congruent Colour 15 Front & back Health authority warning No Yes
Late transition & Post PP 75 90 Front & back Negative Congruent Colour 25 Front & back No source No Yes
7 Elton-Marshall et al., 2015 Malaysia (Pre) NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Yes No
Malaysia (Post) 40 60 Front & back Negative NA Colour 10 Front No source No Yes
8 Fathelrahman et al., 2010 Complete sample 60 NA Front Negative Congruent Colour 40 Front No source No Yes
9 Fathelrahman et al., 2013 Pre GHW NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Yes No
Post GHW 50 50 Front & back Negative Congruent Colour 10 Front No source No No
10 Glock & Kneer, 2009 Complete sample 30 30 No location on pack (screen) Negative Congruent Colour NA NA NA No No
11 Gravely et al., 2016a Wave 2 50 50 Front & back Symbolic NA Colour 30 Front No source No No
Wave 3 80 80 Front & back Negative Congruent Colour 30 Front & back No source No No
12 Gravely et al., 2016b Scorpion GHW 40 NA Front Symbolic Incongruent NA NA Front NA No NA
New pictorial GHW 40 NA Front Negative Congruent Colour NA Front NA No NA
13 Green et al., 2014 Pre pictorial GHW (Wave1) NA NA NA NA NA NA 30 NA NA Yes NA
Post 12 months (Wave2) 60 70 Front & back Mixed Congruent Colour 65 (side) Front & back No source No No
14 Green et al., 2019 Complete sample 75 90 Front, back & package inserts Mixed Congruent Colour 37 Front, back & package inserts Health Canada No Yes
15 Hall et al., 2018 Complete sample 50 50 Front & back Negative Congruent Colour 15 Front & back US HHS No YES
16 Hitchman et al., 2014 Canada 50 50 Front & back Symbolic Congruent Colour 25 Front & back Health Canada No No
17 Kasza et al., 2017 Canada (Wave1) 50 50 Front & back Negative Congruent Colour 25 Front & back Health Canada No No
Canada (Wave9) 75 75 Front, back & package inserts Mixed Congruent Colour 37 Front, back & package inserts Health Canada No Yes
Australia (Wave1) NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Yes No
Australia (Wave9) 75 90 Front & back Negative Congruent Colour 25 Front & back No source No Yes
18 Kennedy et al., 2012 Australia (Waves 1–7) 30 90 Front & back Negative Congruent Colour 15 Front & back Health authority warning No Yes
19 Li et al., 2015 Australia 30 90 Front & back Negative Congruent Colour 15 Front & back Health authority warning No Yes
20 Li et al., 2016 Thailand (Wave3) 50 50 Front & back Negative Congruent Black & white 10 Front & back No source No No
Thailand (Wave5) 55 55 Front & back Negative Congruent black & white 10 Front & back No source No Yes
Malaysia (Wave2) NA NA NA NA NA NA 70 Sides NA Yes No
Malaysia (Wave4 and6) 40 60 Front & back Negative Congruent Colour 10 Front & back No source No Yes
21 Mannocci et al., 2019 Italy (Post) 65 65 Front & back Negative Congruent Colour 50 Sides No source No No
22 Mays et al., 2014 Intervention 50 50 Front & back Negative NA Colour NA Front & back US HHS No Yes
23 McQueen et al., 2015 Graphic condition 50 NA Front Negative Congruent Colour NA Front US HHS No Yes
24 Nagelhout et al., 2016 UK (Pre) NA NA NA NA NA NA 30 (front), 40 (back) 3 NA Yes NA
UK (Post) 43 53 Front & back Negative Congruent Colour 10 Front & back No source No No (only 1/14 has Quitline)
FR (Pre) NA NA NA NA NA NA 30 (front), 40 (back) 3 NA Yes NA
FR (Post) 0 40 Front & back Negative Congruent Colour 20 Front No source No Yes
25 Ngan et al., 2016 Wave 1 & 2 50 50 Front & back Negative Congruent Colour 12 Front & back No source No No
26 Nicholson et al., 2017 Pre PP 30 90 Front & back Negative Congruent Colour 15 Front & back Health authority warning No Yes
Post PP 75 90 Front & back Negative Congruent Colour 25 Front & back No source No Yes
27 Osman et al., 2016 Complete sample 30 0 Front Negative Congruent Colour 100 Back No source No Yes
28 Parada et al., 2017 Pictorial GHW (Waves 1–4) 50 50 Front & back Negative Congruent Colour NA Front & back No source No No
29 Partos et al., 2013 AU 30 90 Front & back Negative Congruent Colour 15 Front & back Health authority warning No Yes
CA 50 50 Front & back Negative Congruent Colour 25 Front & back Health Canada No No
UK 30 40 Front & back Negative Congruent Colour 10 Front No source No No
30 Popova & Ling, 2017   NA NA No location on pack (screen) Negative Congruent Colour NA No location on pack (screen) No source No No
31 Schneider et al., 2012 Pictorial GHW 45 0 Front Negative Congruent Colour 20 Front No source No No
32 Swayampakala et al., 2014 AU (Pre) 30 90 Front & back Negative Congruent Colour 15 Front & back Health authority warning No Yes
AU (Post) 90 90 Front & back Negative Congruent Colour 30 Front & back No source No Yes
CA (Pre) 75 75 Front & back Mixed Congruent Colour 25 Front & back Health Canada No Yes
CA (Post) 75 75 Front, back & package inserts Negative Congruent Colour 25 Front, back & package inserts Health Canada No Yes
MX (Pre-Post) 30 100 Front & back Negative Congruent Colour 100 Back No source No Yes
33 White et al., 2008 AU 2006 GHW 30 90 Front & back Negative Congruent Colour 15 Front & back Health authority warning No Yes
34 Yong et al., 2013 TH (Wave1) NA NA NA NA NA NA 33 Front & back NA Yes NA
TH (Wave 3) 50 50 Front & back Negative Congruent black & white 12 Front & back No source No No
35 Yong et al., 2016 Pre PP 30 90 Front & back Negative Congruent Colour 15 Front & back Health authority warning No Yes
Post PP 75 90 Front & back Negative Congruent Colour 25 Front & back No source No Yes
  1. 1Positive image concept refers to graphics portraying the benefits of quitting smoking while negative images show the harmful effects of smoking.
  2. 2Congruency refers to GHW formats where the message is presented in images and text communicating a consistent, aligned message