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Table 4 Quality assessment

From: The effectiveness of graphic health warnings on tobacco products: a systematic review on perceived harm and quit intentions

No. Author(s), publication year Risk of bias due to confounding Risk of bias in selection of participants Risk of bias in classification of interventions Risk of bias due to deviations from intended intervention Risk of bias due to missing data Risk of bias in measurement of outcomes Risk of bias in selection of the reported result Overall
1 Anshari et al., 2018 Moderate Moderate Moderate Low Low Moderate Low Moderate
2 Borland et al., 2009 Moderate Low Moderate Low Low Moderate Low Moderate
5 Cho et al., 2018 Moderate Moderate Moderate Low Low Moderate Low Moderate
6 Durkin et al., 2015 Moderate Low Low Low Moderate Moderate Low Moderate
7 Elton-Marshall et al., 2015 Moderate Low Low Low Moderate Low Low Moderate
9 Fathelrahman et al., 2013 Moderate Low Low Low Moderate Low Low Moderate
11 Gravely et al., 2016a Moderate Low Low Low Moderate Moderate Low Moderate
12 Gravely et al., 2016b Moderate Low Low Low Low Moderate Low Moderate
13 Green et al., 2014 Moderate Low Low Low Low Moderate Low Moderate
14 Green et al., 2019 Moderate Low Moderate Low Low Moderate Low Moderate
16 Hitchman et al., 2014 Moderate Low Low Low Low Moderate Low Moderate
17 Kasza et al., 2017 Moderate Low Low Low Low Low Low Moderate
18 Kennedy et al., 2012 Moderate Low Low Low Low Moderate Low Moderate
19 Li et al., 2015 Moderate Moderate Low Low NI Moderate Low Moderate
20 Lin et al., 2016 Moderate Moderate Low Low Low Moderate Low Moderate
21 Mannocci et al., 2019 Moderate Moderate Moderate Low NI Moderate Low Moderate
22 Mays et al., 2014 Moderate Low Low Low Low Moderate Low Moderate
24 Nagelhout et al., 2016 Moderate Moderate Low Low Low Moderate Low Moderate
25 Ngan et al., 2016 Moderate Low Moderate Low Low Moderate Low Moderate
26 Nicholson et al., 2017 Moderate Moderate Moderate Low Low Moderate Low Moderate
27 Osman et al., 2016 Moderate Low Low Low Low Low Low Moderate
29 Partos et al., 2013 Moderate Serious Low Low Low Moderate Low Serious
32 Swayampakala et al., 2014 Moderate Low Low Low Low Moderate Low Moderate
33 White et al., 2008 Moderate Low Low Low Moderate Moderate Low Moderate
34 Yong et al., 2013 Moderate Low Low Low Moderate Moderate Low Moderate
35 Yong et al., 2016 Moderate Low Moderate Low Low Moderate Low Moderate
  1. RoB2