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Table 2 Comparison of ratings of interventions between framed and non-framed participants / participants with and without children

From: What do Germans really think about health-nudges?

Intervention Difference Framing - no Framing Difference participants with – and without children
Test statistics W1 p-value1 and direction of effect2 Test statistics W1 p-value1 and direction of effect2
Theoretical concept 106,294.5 p < 0.0001 (NF) 112,077.5 p = 0.0061 (C)
Traffic light labelling system 119,238.0 p = 0.1786 (NF) 119,146.0 p = 0.2702 (C)
Traffic light labelling system (children) 137,450.0 p = 0.0053 (F) 120,777.0 p = 0.4900 (C)
Warning labels 124,520.0 p = 0.9108 (NF) 120,511.5 p = 0.4334 (C)
Warning labels (children) 126,136.0 p = 0.7990 (F) 125,639.0 p = 0.6867 (NC)
Supermarket checkouts 129,481.0 p = 0.3095 (F) 111,942.0 p = 0.0067 (C)
Supermarket checkouts (children) 129,869.5 p = 0.2750 (F) 111,586.5 p = 0.0058 (C)
Supermarket general 129,305.0 p = 0.3193 (F) 114,684.5 p = 0.0332 (C)
Supermarket general (children) 135,597.5 p = 0.0174 (F) 116,119.0 p = 0.0815 (C)
Canteens 125,357.5 p = 0.9345 (F) 118,090.0 p = 0.1830 (C)
Canteens (children) 132,674.5 p = 0.0851 (F) 116,786.5 p = 0.1115 (C)
Advertisement 129,521.0 p = 0.3021 (F) 116,213.0 p = 0.0799 (C)
Advertisement (children) 130,463.5 p = 0.2196 (F) 126,463.5 p = 0.5550 (NC)
Environment 126,346.0 p = 0.7528 (F) 119,343.5 p = 0.2895 (C)
Environment (children) 123,637.5 p = 0.7531 (NF) 115,604.0 p = 0.0557 (C)
  1. F Better rating if framed, NF Better rating if not framed, C better rating if respondent has children, NC better rating if respondent has no children
  2. 1: Provided test statistics and p-values are based on two-sided Mann-Whitney U tests
  3. 2: The direction of the effect was assessed by conducting 2 1-sided Mann-Whitney U tests, each pointing in a different direction. The direction with the smaller p-value was then considered as the direction of the observed effect