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Table 2 Self-reported barriers to accessing healthcare for chronic-care patients during the COVID-19 lockdown in Rwanda (N = 220)

From: Barriers and coping mechanisms to accessing healthcare during the COVID-19 lockdown: a cross-sectional survey among patients with chronic diseases in rural Rwanda

Variables Bivariate analysis of the factors associated with reporting barriers to accessing healthcare during the COVID-19 lockdown Multivariable logistic regression analysis of the factors associated with reporting at least one barrier to accessing healthcare in lockdown
Lack of access to emergency care,
n (%)
Lack of access to medication,
n (%)
Skipping clinical appointments,
n (%)
Difficulty getting to the health facility (walking long distances, lack of transport),
n (%)
At least one barrier to accessing health care reported,
n (%)
Odds ratio
[95% confidence interval]
p-value
Overall 50 (22.7) 44 (20.0) 37 (16.8) 28 (12.7) 96 (43.6)
Clinical program (p = 0.239) (p = 0.008) (p < 0.001) (p < 0.001) (p = 0.001)   (p = 0.023)
 HIV/AIDS 6 (12.2) 6 (12.2) 2 (4.1) 0 (0.0) 10 (20.4) ref  
 Non-communicable diseases 12 (24.0) 13 (26.0) 3 (6.0) 10 (20.0) 24 (48.0) 3.7 [1.4–9.6]  
 Mental health 9 (20.9) 13 (30.2) 9 (20.9) 0 (0.0) 19 (44.2) 3.6 [1.3–9.9]  
 Pediatric Development Clinic 14 (29.8) 3 (6.4) 15 (31.9) 6 (12.8) 23 (48.9) 3.4 [1.2–9.1]  
 Oncology 9 (29.0) 9 (29.0) 8 (25.8) 11 (35.5) 20 (64.5) 6.5 [1.9–21.8]  
Estimated time (hours) from home to the health facility of usual health care (p = 0.077) (p = 0.465) (p = 0.223) (p = 0.006) (p = 0.031)   (p = 0.243)
  < 1 h 12 (15.4) 13 (16.7) 9 (11.5) 6 (7.7) 31 (39.7) ref  
 1–2 h 24 (24.0) 20 (20.0) 18 (18.0) 10 (10.0) 39 (39.0) 0.9 [0.4–1.7]  
  > 2 h 14 (33.3) 11 (26.2) 10 (23.8) 12 (28.6) 26 (61.9) 1.9 [0.7–4.7]  
District of residence (p < 0.001) (p = 0.001) (p = 0.104) (p < 0.001) (p = 0.073)   (p = 0.040)
 Kayonza 12 (16.0) 7 (9.3) 11 (14.7) 16 (21.3) 29 (38.7) ref  
 Kirehe 33 (41.3) 26 (32.5) 19 (23.8) 1 (1.3) 43 (53.8) 2.1 [1.0–4.4]  
 Burera 5 (7.7) 11 (16.9) 7 (10.8) 11 (16.9) 24 (36.9) 0.8 [0.4–1.9]  
Socio-economic status (Ubudehe category)a (p = 0.535) (p = 0.690) (p = 0.506) (p = 0.058) (p = 0.121)   (p = 0.068)
 1 6 (15.8) 7 (18.4) 8 (21.1) 3 (7.9) 13 (34.2) ref  
 2 21 (25.6) 14 (17.1) 11 (13.4) 8 (9.8) 32 (39.0) 1.3 [0.5–3.0]  
 3 22 (22.5) 22 (22.5) 18 (18.4) 17 (17.4) 50 (51.0) 2.4 [1.0–5.9]  
Living with someone who could help remind the patient to take medication or accompany the patient to the health facilityb (p = 0.437) (p = 0.416) (p > 0.999) (p = 0.469) (p = 0.624)   (p = 0.843)
 No 13 (26.5) 12 (24.5) 8 (16.3) 8 (16.3) 23 (46.9) ref  
 Yes 35 (21.0) 31 (18.6) 27 (16.2) 20 (12.0) 71 (42.5) 1.1 [0.5–2.3]  
  1. aTwo patients didn’t have data on socio-economic status
  2. bFour patients had missing data on whether they were living with someone who could remind the patient to take medication/accompany the patient to the health facility or not