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Table 2 Multiple linear regression analyses to explain academic achievement in boys (n = 664) and girls (n = 613)

From: How are academic achievement and inhibitory control associated with physical fitness, soil-transmitted helminth infections, food insecurity and stunting among South African primary schoolchildren?

End of the year results Mixed multiple linear regression
Boys Girls
Explanatory variables Estimate S.E. p-value Estimate S.E. p-value
Age 0.00 0.05 0.956 −0.07 0.08 0.382
BMI 0.04 0.06 0.533 0.06 0.06 0.290
Socioeconomic status 0.14 0.007 0.043 −0.06 0.06 0.326
Stunting (0 = not stunted, 1 = stunted)* − 0.05 0.05 0.297 − 0.11 0.05 0.038
Food insecurity 0.06 0.07 0.324 −0.09 0.06 0.061
STH infection (0 = not infected, 1 = infected)* 0.01 0.04 0.687 −0.12 0.06 0.053
Grip strength 0.03 0.05 0.562 0.10 0.08 0.205
Cardiorespiratory fitness 0.08 0.05 0.101 0.14 0.07 0.031
Language Mixed multiple linear regression
  Boys Girls
Age −0.05 0.06 0.398 −0.11 0.08 0.185
BMI 0.03 0.06 0.630 0.09 0.06 0.131
Socioeconomic status 0.12 0.07 0.065 −0.08 0.06 0.207
Stunting (0 = not stunted, 1 = stunted)* −0.06 0.05 0.181 −0.10 0.05 0.038
Food insecurity 0.10 0.07 0.130 −0.09 0.06 0.129
STH infection (0 = not infected, 1 = infected)* − 0.02 0.04 0.568 −0.11 0.06 0.065
Grip strength 0.02 0.05 0.747 0.10 0.08 0.176
Cardiorespiratory fitness 0.05 0.05 0.248 0.14 0.06 0.028
Mathematics Mixed multiple linear regression
  Boys Girls
Age 0.05 0.05 0.302 −0.03 0.08 0.683
BMI 0.04 0.06 0.462 0.03 0.06 0.576
Socioeconomic status 0.13 0.06 0.039 −0.04 0.06 0.511
Stunting (0 = not stunted, 1 = stunted)* − 0.04 0.05 0.474 − 0.13 0.06 0.032
Food insecurity 0.02 0.06 0.732 −0.09 0.04 0.053
STH infection (0 = not infected, 1 = infected)* 0.05 0.03 0.127 −0.11 0.06 0.057
Grip strength 0.04 0.04 0.374 0.09 0.08 0.242
Cardiorespiratory fitness 0.09 0.05 0.049 0.14 0.07 0.044
Life skills Mixed multiple linear regression
  Boys Girls
Age 0.04 0.07 0.557 0.14 0.09 0.103
BMI 0.02 0.06 0.693 0.06 0.07 0.406
Socioeconomic status 0.18 0.06 0.003 −0.07 0.06 0.236
Stunting (0 = not stunted, 1 = stunted)* − 0.10 0.05 0.047 −0.09 0.06 0.149
Food insecurity 0.02 0.07 0.817 −0.06 0.048 0.239
STH infection (0 = not infected, 1 = infected)* − 0.03 0.03 0.387 −0.11 0.06 0.060
Grip strength 0.04 0.05 0.371 0.03 0.08 0.703
Cardiorespiratory fitness 0.05 0.05 0.363 0.17 0.07 0.012
  1. Notes: School classs was used as a random intercept accross all analyses. *Being “not stunted” and being “not infected” are used as reference. STH Soil trasmitted helminths. Statistically significant associations are highlighted with bold font