Skip to main content

Table 2 Parent monitoring through late childhood and adolescence

From: Factors associated with crack-cocaine early initiation: a Brazilian multicenter study

Did your parents / caregivers really know: 8–11 years (n = 542) 12–14 years (n = 526) 15-17 years (n = 483)  
No | A little Very well P-valuea Adjusted p-valueb No | A little Very well P-valuea Adjusted p-valueb No | A little Very well P-valuea Adjusted p-valueb
Who your friends were?
 N (%) 282 (52) 260 (48)    355 (67.4) 171 (32.6)    379 (79.5) 98 (20.5)   
 Average age (SD) 20.9 (6.42) 22.5 (7.44) 0.008 0.392 20.6 (6.12) 23.6 (7.76) < 0.001 0.097 21.7 (7.13) 21.0 (6.18) 0.371 0.725
 CI 95% 20.1–21.6 21.6–23.4    20.0–21.2 22.4–24.7    21.0–22.4 19.7–22.2   
How you spent your money?1
 N (%) 157 (43.2) 207 (56.8) 0.113   309 (65.5) 163 (34.5)    394 (83.4) 79 (16.6)   0.423
 Average age (SD) 22.4 (7.78) 21.2 (6.39)   0.768 20.3 (6.12) 23.1 (7.16) < 0.001 0.061 21.7 (7.22) 21.1 (6.13) 0.444  
 CI 95% 21.2–23.7 20.4–22.1    19.6–21.0 22.0–24.2    21.0–22.4 19.7–22.4   
Where you used to go in your spare time?
 N (%) 250 (46.2) 291 (53.8) 0.001   370 (70) 158 (30)    402 (83.4) 80 (16.6)   
 Average age (SD) 20.6 (6.38) 22.6 (7.39)   0.503 20.5 (6.12) 24.2 (7.97) < 0.001 0.023 21.9 (7.16) 20.2 (6.08) 0.059 0.856
 CI 95% 19.8–21.3 21.8–23.5    19.9–21.2 23.0–25.5    21.2–22.6 18.9–21.6   
  1. (1) 178 participants between 8 and 11 years of age, 53, between 12 and 14 years of age and 8 between 15 and 18 years of age reported no access to money at all by that time
  2. SD Standard deviation. CI Confidence Interval. Significant results (p < 0.05) are bolded
  3. at-test for independent variables
  4. bANOVA, analyses adjusted by Bonferroni test