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Table 1 Family relationships (n = 577)

From: Factors associated with crack-cocaine early initiation: a Brazilian multicenter study

Characteristic N (%) Average age
of first crack use
SD (CI 95%) P-valuea Adjusted p-valueb
Lived continuously with his/her mother until 17 years old (n = 541)
 Yes 389 (71.9) 21.9 6.86 (19.5–21.7) 0.061 -c
 No 152 (28.1) 20.6 6.98 (21.2–22.6)   
Until the age of 17, did you experience serious relationships problems with your mother for at least one month? (n = 387)
 Yes 143 (36.9) 20.5 6.36 (19.4–21.5) 0.002 0.466
 No 244 (63.1) 22.7 7.22 (21.8–23.6)   
Lived continuously with his/her father until 17 years old (n = 544)
 Yes 292 (53.6) 22.5 7.06 (21.7–23.3) 0.001 -c
 No 252 (46.4) 20.3 6.38 (19.6–21.1)   
Until the age of 17, did you experience serious relationships problems with your father for at least one month? (n = 291)
 Yes 123 (42.1) 20.9 5.73 (19.9–21.7) 0.001 -c
 No 168 (57.9) 23.6 7.73 (22.4–24.8)   
From 8 to 18, how often did your parents or stepparents yell at each other? (n = 415)
 Never / rarely / sometimes 298 (71.8) 22.2 6.91 (20.8–23.6) 0.691 0.320
 Often 117 (28.2) 21.8 6.54 (20.6–23.0)   
From 8 to 18, how often did your parents or stepparents physically assaulted each other? (n = 417)
 Never / rarely / sometimes 272 (89.2) 22.1 6.97 (21.3–23.0) 0.824 0.570
 Often 45 (10.8) 21.9 6.89 (19.8–24.0)   
Have you witnessed fights with physical aggression between parents or caregivers? (n = 539)
 Yes 236 (43.8) 20.8 6.32 (20.0–21.6) 0.038 -c
 No 303 (56.2) 22.1 7.39 (21.2–22.9)   
Did your father have trouble related to alcohol consumption? (n = 555)
 Yes 297 (53.5) 20.6 6.47 (19.9–21.3) 0.001 0.210
 No 258 (46.5) 22.6 7.48 (21.7–23.5)   
Did your mother have trouble related to alcohol consumption? (n = 546)
 Yes 82 (15) 21.1 7.22 (19.5–22.7) 0.491 0.620
 No 464 (85) 21.7 7.03 (21.1–22.4)   
During childhood or adolescence, have you ever felt yourself extremely mistreated – without food, shelter, medical care and deprived of your basic physical and emotional needs? (n = 570)
 Yes 106 (18.5) 20.1 6.52 (18.9–21.4) 0.016 0.309
 No 464 (81.5) 21.9 7.08 (21.3–22.6)   
During childhood or adolescence, have you ever run away from home during the night? (n = 569)
 Yes 213 (37.4) 20.4 6.87 (19.5–21.3) 0.001 0.185
 No 464 (62.6) 22.3 7.00 (21.6–23.0)   
  1. SD = standard deviation. CI = confidence Interval. Significant results (p < 0.05) are bolded
  2. at-test for independent variables
  3. bANOVA, analyses adjusted by Bonferroni test
  4. cVariables that are no longer binary after ANOVA