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Table 3 Health literacy score by items and levels

From: Exploring the relationship between health literacy and fast food consumption: a population-based study from southern Iran

  Health literacy by items Never Rarely Sometimes Usually Always
  No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)
Reading Reading educational materials about health (booklets, pamphlets, and leaflets) is easy for me. 13 (3.1) 14 (3.3) 96 (22.8) 159 (37.8) 139 (33.0)
Reading written instructions from doctors, dentists and health workers about my illness is easy for me. 15 (3.6) 39 (9.3) 88 (20.9) 156 (37.1) 123 (29.2)
Reading medical and dental forms (such as admissions, consent, filing, etc. in hospitals and medical centers) is easy for me. 14 (3.3) 38 (9.0) 98 (23.3) 143 (34.0) 128 (30.4)
Reading leaflets and instructions for laboratory testing, ultrasound or radiology is easy for me. 12 (2.9) 52 (12.4) 83 (19.7) 144 (34.2) 130 (30.9)
Access to information I can find health information from different sources when I need such information. 25 (5.9) 44 (10.5) 132 (31.4) 142 (33.7) 78 (18.5)
I can find health information about healthy eating. 10 (2.4) 39 (9.3) 105 (24.9) 158 (37.5) 109 (25.9)
I can find health information on mental health such as depression and stress. 29 (6.9) 74 (17.6) 117 (27.8) 127 (30.2) 74 (17.6)
I can find health information about a specific disease when I need to. 17 (4.0) 46 (10.9) 127 (30.2) 133 (31.6) 98 (23.3)
I can find health information for some health problems and diseases such as high blood pressure, high blood sugar and high lipid levels. 17 (4.0) 56 (13.3) 86 (20.4) 154 (36.6) 108 (25.7)
I can find health information about harmful effects of tobacco and smoking. 15 (3.6) 31 (7.4) 65 (15.4) 132 (31.4) 178 (42.3)
Understanding I can understand the recommendations for a healthy diet. 5 (1.2) 14 (3.3) 48 (11.4) 143 (34.0) 211 (50.1)
I can understand when my physician explains about my illness. 2 (0.5) 11 (2.6) 41 (9.7) 135 (32.1) 232 (55.1)
I can understand the meaning when reading medical forms (such as admissions, consents, filings, etc.) in hospitals and health centers. 9 (2.1) 34 (8.1) 74 (17.6) 134 (31.8) 170 (40.4)
I can understand signage guidelines in hospitals, clinics and health centers. 6 (1.4) 13 (3.1) 66 (15.7) 129 (30.6) 207 (49.2)
I can understand drug information on labels. 7 (1.7) 22 (5.2) 33 (7.8) 109 (25.9) 250 (59.4)
I can understand the risks, and benefits of drugs prescribed by my physician. 12 (2.9) 27 (6.4) 58 (13.8) 142 (33.7) 182 (43.2)
I can understand written information before testing, ultrasound or radiology. 33 (7.8) 44 (10.5) 80 (19.0) 134 (31.8) 130 (30.9)
Appraisal I can evaluate health-related information on the Internet. 56 (13.3) 79 (18.8) 119 (28.3) 102 (24.2) 65 (15.4)
I can evaluate health-related information broadcast on television and radio. 11 (2.6) 45 (10.7) 108 (25.7) 161 (38.2) 96 (22.8)
I can assess the accuracy of health-related recommendations I receive from relatives and friends. 15 (3.6) 54 (12.8) 110 (26.1) 138 (32.8) 104 (24.7)
I can communicate trusted health information to others 14 (3.3) 26 (6.2) 92 (21.9) 128 (30.4) 161 (38.2)
Decision-making/ behavioral intention When facing an illness, I know where to go or with who me to speak. 6 (1.4) 40 (9.5) 85 (20.2) 133 (31.6) 157 (37.3)
When physician suggests that I should take antibiotic capsules three times a day I know that I should take one tablet every 8 h. 6 (1.4) 19 (4.5) 46 (10.9) 124 (29.5) 226 (53.7)
I do not cut my medications without my physician’s permission, even if symptoms disappear. 13 (3.1) 33 (7.8) 84 (20.0) 121 (28.7) 170 (40.4)
If anyone from my first-degree relatives develops cancer (such as prostate, breast, cervix, colon, etc.), I see a doctor to examine me. 28 (6.7) 80 (19.0) 72 (17.1) 102 (24.2) 139 (33.0)
I avoid doing or eating things that increase my blood pressure. 13 (3.1) 43 (10.2) 98 (23.3) 265 (62.9) 2 (0.5)
I visit my physician for regular checkups. 61 (14.5) 101 (24.0) 94 (22.3) 74 (17.6) 91 (21.6)
I am health-conscious in any situation. 6 (1.4) 33 (7.8) 100 (23.8) 160 (38.0) 122 (29.0)
If needed, I ask my physician or health care team questions about my disease. 11 (2.6) 59 (14.0) 78 (18.5) 145 (34.4) 128 (30.4)
I buy dairy products (milk, yoghurt, cheese, etc.) according to their fat percentage. 13 (3.1) 59 (14.0) 76 (18.1) 129 (30.6) 144 (34.2)
I avoid using substances that increase my weight. 74 (17.6) 85 (20.2) 130 (30.9) 132 (31.4) 0 (0.0)
I use a seat belt when driving. 6 (1.4) 23 (5.5) 52 (12.4) 105 (24.9) 235 (55.8)
I consider the food labels when shopping 9 (2.1) 36 (8.6) 86 (20.4) 144 (34.2) 146 (34.7)
  Health literacy by dimensions Total Inadequate Problematic Sufficient Excellent
   Mean (SD) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)
  Reading 66.08 (21.51) 115 (27.3) 72 (17.1) 154 (36.6) 80 (19.0)
  Access to information 78.65 (18.33) 38 (9.0) 55 (13.1) 135 (32.1) 193 (45.8)
  Understanding 64.62 (12.51) 124 (29.5) 85 (20.2) 134 (31.8) 78 (18.5)
  Appraisal 68.07 (17.04) 73 (17.3) 93 (22.1) 179 (42.5) 76 (18.1)
  Decision making 69.85 (15.27) 42 (10.0) 119 (28.3) 182 (43.2) 78 (18.5)
  Total score 70.65 (22.20) 92 (21.9) 69 (16.4) 136 (32.3) 124 (29.5)