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Table 4 Characteristics of the HFHL workers in the training cohort and validation cohort

From: A risk model and nomogram for high-frequency hearing loss in noise-exposed workers

Variable Training cohort (n = 25,732) P# Validation cohort (n = 6389) P#
n Positive cases (%) n Positive cases (%)
Sex    < 0.001    < 0.001
 Male 87.77 2004 (90.11)   1632 45 (2.76)  
 Female 12.23 220 (9.89)   4757 502 (10.55)  
Age (years)    < 0.001    < 0.001
  < 25 1525 23 (1.51)   383 5 (1.31)  
 25–29 3369 96 (2.85)   822 21 (2.56)  
 30–34 3120 129 (4.13)   768 28 (3.65)  
 35–39 3675 296 (8.05)   884 69 (7.81)  
 40–44 7085 664 (9.37)   1783 181 (10.15)  
  ≥ 45 6958 1016 (28.99)   1749 243 (30.00)  
NED (years)    < 0.001    < 0.001
 0–4 10,840 708 (6.53)   2671 165 (6.18)  
 5–9 6521 549 (8.42)   1616 132 (8.17)  
 10–14 2967 324 (10.92)   775 76 (9.81)  
 15–19 1625 175 (10.77)   381 57 (14.96)  
 20–24 2227 246 (11.05)   548 66 (12.04)  
 25–29 1152 156 (13.54)   289 33 (11.42)  
  ≥ 30 400 66 (16.50)   109 18 (16.51)  
Industry type    < 0.001    < 0.001
 Manufacturing 18,673 1486 (7.96)   4622 352 (7.62)  
 Construction 232 271 (1.64)   62 7 (11.29)  
 Mining 2670 472 (17.68)   671 113 (16.84)  
 Others 4157 239 (5.75)   1034 75 (7.25)  
Enterprise type    < 0.001    < 0.001
 SOE 7762 524 (6.75)   1899 130 (6.85)  
 FOE 1978 109 (5.51)   468 32 (6.84)  
 POE 15,992 1591 (9.95)   4022 385 (9.57)  
  1. Abbreviations: HFHL high-frequency hearing loss, defined by a BHFTA ≥40 dB, BHFTA binaural high-frequency threshold average, NED noise exposure duration, FOE foreign-owned enterprise, SOE state-owned enterprise, POE private-owned enterprise
  2. Footnote. # P-value was assessed by the chi-square test, with significance at < 0.05