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Table 3 Poisson regression for association between GIIa and primary outcomes (N = 204,124)a,b

From: Association of source country gender inequality with experiencing assault and poor mental health among young female immigrants to Ontario, Canada

  Experiencing Assault Mental Health Composite
IRR 95%LCL 95%UCL IRR 95%LCL 95%UCL
GII Quartile (Ref: GII Q1)a
 GII Q2 1.48 1.08 2.01 0.83 0.69 1.01
 GII Q3 1.53 0.99 2.34 0.92 0.73 1.16
 GII Q4 1.58 1.08 2.31 0.91 0.68 1.22
Largest 4 Countries
 China 1.15 0.85 1.57 0.39 0.32 0.48
 Philippines 0.91 0.64 1.30 0.86 0.74 1.00
 Pakistan 0.40 0.33 0.48 0.72 0.62 0.84
 India 0.44 0.36 0.53 0.62 0.53 0.73
Age at Immigration  (Years) (Ref: 22,23,24,25)
 6–9 1.69 1.24 2.31 2.41 2.01 2.88
 10–13 2.05 1.66 2.55 2.02 1.76 2.31
 14–17 2.29 1.85 2.84 1.97 1.75 2.20
 18–21 1.72 1.43 2.06 1.55 1.40 1.72
 22–25 1.14 0.96 1.36 1.18 1.05 1.31
Income Quintile (Ref: Quintile1)
 Income Quintile 2 0.84 0.75 0.94 0.92 0.85 0.99
 Income Quintile 3 0.85 0.74 0.99 0.99 0.89 1.09
 Income Quintile 4 0.82 0.71 0.96 0.90 0.82 0.99
 Income Quintile 5 (Highest) 0.75 0.59 0.95 1.03 0.88 1.22
Gross National Income (GNI) Categorization (Ref: Low income)
 Lower-middle-income 0.85 0.62 1.18 0.94 0.76 1.16
 Upper-middle-income 1.25 0.87 1.80 1.10 0.85 1.42
 High-income 1.21 0.82 1.81 1.07 0.77 1.49
Immigration Status (Ref: Economic)
 Refugee 2.96 2.32 3.76 1.73 1.50 2.01
 Family 2.26 1.81 2.83 1.49 1.31 1.71
Immigration Period (Ref: 2003–2005)
 2006–2008 1.00 0.88 1.14 1.02 0.95 1.09
 2009–2011 1.04 0.90 1.20 1.09 0.98 1.21
 2012–2014 1.08 0.88 1.32 1.13 1.00 1.28
 2015–2017 0.84 0.64 1.11 1.25 1.05 1.48
  1. aGII = Gender Inequality Index
  2. bExperiencing assault and mental health composite are modeled in separate regression models