Skip to main content

Table 2 Number and ratea of violent injuries and mental health composite outcomea

From: Association of source country gender inequality with experiencing assault and poor mental health among young female immigrants to Ontario, Canada

  Experiencing Assault Mental Health Composite
N Rateb N Rateb
Gender Inequality Index (GII) Quartile
 GII Q1 (Lowest Inequality) 509 8.0 3895 61.5
 GII Q2 543 14.3 3291 86.5
 GII Q3 973 13.0 6713 90.0
 GII Q4 (Highest Inequality) 1087 9.9 8272 75.2
Largest 4 Countries
 China (GII = 0.20; Q1) 263 7.2 1130 30.9
 Philippines (GII = 0.45; Q3) 160 7.2 1499 67.9
 Pakistan (GII = 0.59; Q4) 94 4.3 1571 72.3
 India (GII = 0.60; Q4) 232 5.1 2140 46.8
Age at immigration (Years)
 6–9 227 10.5 2678 123.3
 10–13 439 14.4 3398 111.3
 14–17 561 16.7 3547 105.5
 18–21 596 13.9 3656 85.2
 22–25 638 9.3 4322 62.9
 26–29 651 7.4 4570 51.6
Immigrant Status
 Economic 686 6.0 7127 62.0
 Family/other/missing 1500 11.5 9936 76.4
 Refugee 926 22.6 5108 124.8
Income Quintile
 Income Quintile 1 (Lowest) 1415 13.0 9035 83.2
 Income Quintile 2 684 10.0 4940 72.4
 Income Quintile 3 478 9.7 3742 75.8
 Income Quintile 4 333 9.2 2545 70.3
 Income Quintile 5 (Highest) 202 8.6 1909 81.0
Immigration Period
 2003–2005 1035 9.9 7571 72.6
 2006–2008 884 11.0 6155 76.8
 2009–2011 622 11.8 4262 81.2
 2012–2014 411 12.6 2691 82.8
 2015–2017 160 9.7 1492 90.7
Region of Birth
 East Asia and Pacific 535 7.2 3579 47.9
 Europe and Central Asia 356 11.1 3120 97.2
 Latin America and the Caribbean 747 23.7 3682 116.7
 Middle East and North Africa 354 10.7 2894 87.8
 North America 83 12.3 871 129.5
 South Asia 563 6.3 6050 68.0
 Sub-Saharan Africa 474 24.9 1975 103.7
Gross National Income (GNI) Categorization
 Low-income 792 11.2 5530 78.3
 Lower-middle-income 1235 9.1 9195 67.5
 Upper-middle-income 723 15.5 4132 88.5
 High-income 362 11.2 3314 102.4
Marital Status (Immigrants age 18–29 at immigration)
 Married 850 12.3 4940 71.5
 Separated/widowed/divorced 26 20.6 170 135.0
 Single 1008 7.8 7434 57.3
Education (Immigrants age 18–29 at immigration)
 Bachelors or higher 404 5.3 3266 42.8
 Postgraduate less than Bachelors 402 10.4 2337 60.2
 Secondary or less 1068 12.7 6868 82.0
  1. Legend: aTable 2 uses full sample before stratified random sampling is applied; bper 10,000 Person Years (PYs)