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Table 4 Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI) for multimorbidity at age 55 by different life course models

From: Multimorbidity and leisure-time physical activity over the life course: a population-based birth cohort study

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
OR 95% CI p value OR 95% CI p value OR 95% CI p value
Saturation model
 0,0,0,0,0 1.01 0.32, 1.01 0.054 1.68 0.45, 1.68 0.678 1.99 0.45, 1.99 0.896
 0,0,0,1,0 2.29 0.67, 2.29 0.504 3.81 0.93, 3.81 0.081 5.25 1.10, 5.25 0.027
 0,0,1,0,0 0.95 0.32, 0.95 0.031 1.31 0.37, 1.31 0.266 1.37 0.33, 1.37 0.272
 0,0,1,0,1 1.51 0.53, 1.51 0.682 2.38 0.7, 2.38 0.416 2.04 0.50, 2.04 0.975
 0,0,1,1,0 0.80 0.29, 0.8 0.005 1.31 0.4, 1.31 0.284 1.70 0.45, 1.70 0.698
 0,0,1,1,1 1.44 0.51, 1.44 0.553 2.49 0.74, 2.49 0.323 3.14 0.80, 3.14 0.184
 0,1,1,0,0 0.79 0.35, 0.79 0.002 1.33 0.51, 1.33 0.420 1.71 0.58, 1.71 0.981
 0,1,1,0,1 1.84 0.47, 1.84 0.835 2.75 0.52, 2.75 0.676 3.03 0.48, 3.03 0.698
 0,1,1,1,1 1.06 0.24, 1.06 0.070 1.84 0.33, 1.84 0.574 2.21 0.33, 2.21 0.739
 1,0,0,0,0 2.11 0.24, 2.11 0.546 3.02 0.1, 3.02 0.499 2.40 0.07, 2.40 0.312
 1,0,0,0,1 0.85 0.2, 0.85 0.017 1.82 0.37, 1.82 0.622 2.87 0.49, 2.87 0.703
 1,0,0,1,0 1.59 0.47, 1.59 0.645 2.34 0.58, 2.34 0.664 2.40 0.49, 2.40 0.841
 1,0,0,1,1 0.83 0.27, 0.83 0.009 1.39 0.38, 1.39 0.333 1.74 0.40, 1.74 0.631
 1,0,1,0,0 0.88 0.28, 0.88 0.016 1.28 0.33, 1.28 0.210 1.59 0.34, 1.59 0.440
 1,0,1,0,1 0.66 0.28, 0.66 < 0.001 1.05 0.39, 1.05 0.074 1.45 0.47, 1.45 0.516
 1,0,1,1,0 1.83 0.57, 1.83 0.933 2.94 0.75, 2.94 0.260 2.60 0.55, 2.60 0.648
 1,0,1,1,1 1.47 0.39, 1.47 0.419 2.34 0.51, 2.34 0.825 3.59 0.66, 3.59 0.321
 1,1,0,0,0 1.82 0.37, 1.82 0.622 3.61 0.58, 3.61 0.421 4.84 0.61, 4.84 0.307
 1,1,0,0,1 1.45 0.46, 1.45 0.496 2.20 0.59, 2.2 0.695 3.05 0.71, 3.05 0.304
 1,1,0,1,0 1.33 0.45, 1.33 0.351 1.99 0.55, 1.99 0.882 2.50 0.6, 2.5 0.580
 1,1,0,1,1 0.95 0.32, 0.95 0.032 1.29 0.36, 1.29 0.245 1.82 0.44, 1.82 0.760
 1,1,1,0,0 1.00 0.33, 1 0.049 1.58 0.44, 1.58 0.587 2.06 0.49, 2.06 0.987
 1,1,1,0,1 0.90 0.39, 0.9 0.013 1.34 0.51, 1.34 0.438 1.92 0.64, 1.92 0.713
 1,1,1,1,0 2.29 0.57, 2.29 0.703 2.69 0.56, 2.69 0.608 3.25 0.56, 3.25 0.507
Critical period
 Childhood 1.01 0.91; 1.12 0.877 0.96 0.85; 1.09 0.526 0.97 0.84; 1.13 0.744
 Adolescence 0.90 0.81; 1.00 0.052 0.88 0.77; 1.01 0.081 0.82 0.70; 0.97 0.023
 Young-adult 0.74 0.66; 0.84 < 0.001 0.82 0.71; 0.95 0.008 0.94 0.79; 1.12 0.497
 Middle-aged adults 0.77 0.69; 0.85 < 0.001 0.85 0.76; 0.96 0.009 0.90 0.77; 1.03 0.137
 Middle-to-older adults 0.64 0.57; 0.70 < 0.001 0.69 0.61; 0.78 < 0.001 0.85 0.73; 0.98 0.027
Accumulation
 Categorical
  None Ref    Ref    Ref   
  One 0.48 0.21; 1.07 0.072 0.56 0.22; 1.39 0.210 0.69 0.23; 2.08 0.513
  Two 0.45 0.21; 0.97 0.041 0.56 0.23; 1.32 0.183 0.69 0.24; 1.96 0.483
  Three 0.38 0.17; 0.81 0.012 0.47 0.20; 1.11 0.177 0.65 0.23; 1.84 0.420
  Four 0.32 0.15; 0.67 < 0.001 0.39 0.17; 0.91 0.030 0.57 0.21; 1.61 0.291
  Five 0.29 0.14; 0.63 < 0.001 0.33 0.14; 0.78 0.011 0.52 0.18; 1.46 0.213
 Continuous 0.86 0.81; 0.91 < 0.001 0.85 0.79; 0.91 < 0.001 0.91 0.84; 0.99 0.001
Sensitive period
 Childhood 1.00 0.91; 1.12 0.877 0.96 0.81; 1.15 0.683 0.98 0.80; 1.20 0.848
 Adolescence 0.90 0.81; 1.00 0.052 0.81 0.67; 0.99 0.041 0.83 0.70, 0.98 0.025
 Young-adult 0.74 0.66; 0.84 < 0.001 0.87 0.70; 1.07 0.187 0.98 0.77; 1.25 0.265
 Middle-aged adults 0.77 0.69; 0.84 < 0.001 0.91 0.75; 1.09 0.305 0.90 0.72; 1.12 0.338
 Middle-to-older adults 0.63 0.57; 0.70 < 0.001 0.69 0.59; 0.79 < 0.001 0.82 0.69; 0.98 0.025
  1. Numbers in bold indicates statistical significance (p < 0.05)
  2. Each number position (“0” for inactive or “1” for active) for the saturation model represents, respectively, 5 lifetime stages: childhood, adolescence, and young, middle, and middle-to-older adults
  3. Model 1: Unadjusted
  4. Model 2: Adjusted for sex, education, income, marital status, country of birth, ethnicity
  5. Model 3: Model 2 + smoking, alcohol, and hours of sleep at age 50