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Table 3 Social and economic consequences of COVID-19 pandemic

From: Health, psychosocial, and economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on people with chronic conditions in India: a mixed methods study

  Overall (N = 1734) Delhi (N = 430) Chennai (N = 494) Sonipat (N = 410) Vizag (N = 400)
Impact on self-care behaviors Rural (N = 209) Urban (N = 201) Rural (N = 192) Urban (N = 208)
Adherence to a meal plan in the last 1 week
 0 days 553 (36.2) 179 (51.6) 227 (54.7) 48 (25) 46 (25) 37 (20) 16 (7.8)
 1–3 days 157 (10.3) 4 (1.2) 0 (0) 52 (27.1) 57 (31) 26 (14.1) 18 (8.7)
 4 or more days 819 (53.6) 164 (47.3) 188 (45.3) 92 (47.9) 81 (44) 122 (66) 172 (83.5)
Irregular eating pattern in the last 1 week
 0 days 1365 (78.7) 388 (90.2) 456 (92.3) 126 (60.3) 116 (57.7) 134 (69.8) 145 (69.7)
 1–3 days 249 (14.4) 32 (7.4) 25 (5.1) 39 (18.7) 60 (29.9) 44 (22.9) 49 (23.6)
 4 or more days 120 (6.9) 10 (2.3) 13 (2.6) 44 (21.1) 25 (12.4) 14 (7.3) 14 (6.7)
Physical activity in the last 1 week
 0 days 1038 (59.9) 332 (77.2) 338 (68.4) 54 (25.8) 90 (44.8) 122 (63.5) 102 (49)
 1–3 days 202 (11.7) 36 (8.4) 12 (2.4) 83 (39.7) 54 (26.9) 7 (3.7) 10 (4.8)
 4 or more days 494 (28.5) 62 (14.4) 144 (29.2) 72 (34.5) 57 (28.4) 63 (32.8) 96 (46.2)
Fruits consumption during lockdown vs. pre-lockdown
 Reduced fruit intake 658 (37.9%) 77 (17.9%) 153 (31.0%) 198 (94.7%) 94 (46.8%) 78 (40.6%) 58 (27.9%)
 Increased fruit intake 105 (6.1%) 40 (9.3%) 10 (2.0%) 1 (0.5%) 5 (2.5%) 13 (6.8%) 36 (17.3%)
 No change in fruit intake 971 (56.0%) 313 (72.8%) 331 (67.0%) 10 (4.8%) 102 (50.7%) 101 (52.6%) 114 (54.8%)
Vegetables consumption during lockdown vs. pre-lockdown
 Reduced vegetable intake 485 (28.0%) 49 (11.4%) 67 (13.6%) 191 (91.4%) 81 (40.3%) 61 (31.8%) 36 (17.3%)
 Increased vegetable intake 196 (11.3%) 46 (10.7%) 39 (7.9%) 2 (1.0%) 8 (4.0%) 35 (18.2%) 66 (31.7%)
 No change in vegetable intake 1053 (60.7%) 335 (77.9%) 388 (78.5%) 16 (7.7%) 112 (55.7%) 96 (50.0%) 106 (51.0%)
Duration and intensity of physical activity during lockdown vs. pre-lockdown
 Decreased physical activity 431 (24.9%) 42 (9.8%) 111 (22.5%) 149 (71.3%) 89 (44.3%) 10 (5.2%) 30 (14.4%)
 Increased physical activity 38 (2.2%) 10 (2.3%) 11 (2.2%) 2 (1.0%) 8 (4.0%) 0 (0.0%) 7 (3.4%)
 No change in physical activity 227 (13.1%) 46 (10.7%) 34 (6.9%) 4 (1.9%) 14 (7.0%) 60 (31.3%) 69 (33.2%)
Economic impact of COVID-19
 Experienced loss of job 634 (36.6%) 163 (37.9%) 212 (42.9%) 86 (41.1%) 75 (37.3%) 49 (25.5%) 49 (23.6%)
 Experienced loss of income 1029 (59.3%) 203 (47.2%) 355 (71.9%) 131 (62.7%) 91 (45.3%) 139 (72.4%) 110 (52.9%)
 Received financial support from the government 774 (44.6%) 36 (8.4%) 460 (93.1%) 34 (16.3%) 14 (7.0%) 163 (84.9%) 67 (32.2%)
  1. COVID-19 coronavirus disease 2019