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# Table 4 Invariance tests of the basic CFA model between the Chinese group and American group

Model | Description |
λ^{2}
| df | p | CFI | TLI | NFI | RMSEA | AIC | ECVI | Test | ΔCFI | ΔRMSEA |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

M0 | Baseline model, no constraints on model parameters | 263.124 | 26 | <.001 | 0.977 | 0.941 | 0.966 | 0.030 | 607.124 | 0.283 | – | – | – |

M1 | All factor loadings constrained to be equal | 408.270 | 35 | <.001 | 0.959 | 0.922 | 0.947 | 0.047 | 704.270 | 0.329 | M1-M0 | −0.018 | 0.017 |

M2 | “Approach” factor loadings constrained to be equal | 281.146 | 31 | <.001 | 0.971 | 0.949 | 0.963 | 0.032 | 654.146 | 0.296 | M2-M0 | −0.006 | 0.002 |

M3 | “Avoidance” factor loadings constrained to be equal | 367.272 | 31 | <.001 | 0.962 | 0.943 | 0.948 | 0.042 | 720.272 | 0.655 | M3-M0 | −0.015 | 0.012 |

M4 | All factor loadings constrained to be equal except item NFA_10 | 292.361 | 34 | <.001 | 0.969 | 0.945 | 0.951 | 0.039 | 679.025 | 0.309 | M4-M0 | −0.008 | 0.009 |

M5 | All factor loadings and the vectors of item intercepts constrained to be equal | 335.565 | 73 | <.001 | 0.953 | 0.929 | 0.942 | 0.049 | 762.515 | 0.683 | M5-M1 | −0.006 | 0.002 |

M6 | All factor loadings and the variances of constructs constrained to be equal | 320.461 | 41 | <.001 | 0.951 | 0.931 | 0.944 | 0.045 | 738.461 | 0.398 | M6-M1 | −0.008 | −0.002 |

M7 | All factor loadings and the factor covariance constrained to be equal | 518.586 | 45 | <.001 | 0.946 | 0.908 | 0.939 | 0.061 | 822.586 | 0.703 | M7-M1 | −0.013 | 0.014 |