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Table 2 Goodness-of-fit statistics of using Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM), a modified Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) model with cross-loadings and a basic CFA model without cross-loadings for the Appel et al.’s 10-item NFA scale in the 4 subsamples

From: Are need for affect and cognition culture dependent? Implications for global public health campaigns: a cross-sectional study

Model tested λ2 df p CFI TLI NFI RMSEA AIC ECVI
ESEM Chinese subsample 1 79.325 22 <.001 0.975 0.950 0.967 0.067 165.325 0.285
Chinese subsample 2 90.266 22 <.001 0.971 0.940 0.962 0.073 176.266 0.302
American subsample 1 40.860 22 <.001 0.988 0.969 0.974 0.041 126.86 0.251
American subsample 2 52.681 22 <.001 0.976 0.940 0.960 0.054 138.681 0.294
Modified
CFA
Chinese subsample 1 19.299 14 <.001 0.997 0.991 0.982 0.028 125.299 0.216
Chinese subsample 2 26.168 14 <.001 0.989 0.974 0.972 0.045 132.168 0.226
American subsample 1 15.033 14 <.001 0.999 0.997 0.989 0.013 117.033 0.248
American subsample 2 24.746 14 <.001 0.994 0.983 0.980 0.032 126.746 0.250
Basic
CFA
Chinese subsample 1 83.327 18 <.001 0.971 0.912 0.965 0.089 187.327 0.323
Chinese subsample 2 86.597 18 <.001 0.969 0.908 0.964 0.090 190.597 0.326
American subsample 1 28.122 17 <.001 0.983 0.980 0.982 0.035 124.122 0.245
American subsample 2 35.795 17 <.001 0.982 0.957 0.973 0.046 131.795 0.279
Criterion for goodness of fit     ≥ 0.9 ≥ 0.9 ≥ 0.9 ≤ 0.1   
  1. Note: λ2 Normed chi-square, df Degree of freedom, CFI Comparative fit index, TLI Turker and Lewis’s Index of fit, NFI Normed fit index, RMSEA Root mean square error of approximation, AIC Akaike Information Criterion, ECVI Expected Cross-Validation Index