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Table 5 Combined effects of change in frailty status and utilization of 2-month outpatient clinic on 9-year mortality via the Cox proportional hazard models

From: Frailty status changes are associated with healthcare utilization and subsequent mortality in the elderly population

Change of frailty status Utilization of outpatient clinica N Mortality HR (95% CI) HRadj (95% CI)
Deterioration Low 37 24.3% 2.03 (0.93, 4.47) 1.57 (0.70, 3.52)
High 36 27.8% 2.31 (1.05, 5.07) 1.60 (0.71, 3.62)
Unchanged pre-frail or frail Low 68 35.3% 2.96 (1.63, 5.39) 1.79 (0.92, 3.46)
High 65 36.9% 3.59 (1.99, 6.51) 2.79 (1.46, 5.33)
Unchanged robustness Low 160 12.5% 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference)
High 63 14.3% 1.16 (0.53, 2.55) 1.33 (0.60, 2.95)
Improvement (pre-frail to robust) Low 58 19.0% 1.56 (0.75, 3.26) 1.30 (0.61, 2.77)
High 39 17.9% 1.50 (0.63, 3.54) 1.12 (0.46, 2.74)
Improvement (frail to pre-frail/robust) Low 10 30.0% 2.98 (0.89, 10.04) 1.71 (0.48, 6.14)
High 12 75.0% 9.96 (4.52, 21.92) 9.32 (3.82, 22.73)
  1. HR Hazard ratio, CI Confidence interval. The model was adjusted for baseline age, gender, education, cognitive impairment, regular exercise, smoking and drinking habits
  2. aUtilization of outpatient is categorized as “High” if the number of outpatient clinic use in 2 months is > 1 times and “Low” if the use is 1 or 0