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Table 2 Relationship between the change in frailty status and sociodemographic factors, health related practice, and disease history

From: Frailty status changes are associated with healthcare utilization and subsequent mortality in the elderly population

   Change of frailty status#  
Total subjects Deterioration Unchanged pre-frail or frail Unchanged robustness Improvement  
Variable at baseline n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) χ2 test
p-value
Gender       0.004
 Women 235 (42.9) 25 (34.3) 43 (32.3) 109 (48.9) 58 (48.7)  
 Men 313 (57.1) 48 (65.8) 90 (67.7) 114 (51.1) 61 (51.3)  
Age       
  ≤ 70 years 208 (38) 25 (34.3) 31 (23.3) 110 (49.3) 42 (35.3)  
 71–75 years 140 (25.5) 13 (17.8) 27 (20.3) 68 (30.5) 32 (26.9)  
  > 75 years 200 (36.5) 35 (48.0) 75 (56.4) 45 (20.2) 45 (37.8)  
Marital status       0.874
 Married 403 (73.5) 52 (71.2) 101 (75.9) 162 (72.7) 88 (73.9)  
 Othersa 145 (26.5) 21 (28.8) 32 (24.1) 61 (27.4) 31 (26.1)  
Education       0.012
 Illiterate 50 (9.1) 9 (12.3) 10 (7.5) 15 (6.7) 16 (13.4)  
  ≤ 6 years 135 (24.6) 17 (23.3) 45 (33.8) 40 (17.9) 33 (27.7)  
 7–12 years 200 (36.5) 22 (30.1) 47 (35.3) 92 (41.3) 39 (32.8)  
  ≥ 13 years 163 (29.7) 25 (34.3) 31 (23.3) 76 (34.1) 31 (26.1)  
Regular exercise       < 0.001
 No 121 (22.2) 13 (18.1) 59 (44.4) 14 (6.3) 35 (29.7)  
 Yes 424 (77.8) 59 (81.9) 74 (55.6) 208 (93.7) 83 (70.3)  
Smoking       0.001
 No 430 (78.6) 59 (80.8) 89 (67.4) 189 (84.8) 93 (67.4)  
 Yes 41 (7.5) 9 (12.3) 11 (8.3) 13 (5.8) 8 (8.3)  
 Former 76 (13.9) 5 (6.9) 32 (24.2) 21 (9.4) 18 (24.2)  
Drinking       0.011
 No 419 (76.6) 56 (76.7) 99 (75.0) 169 (75.8) 95 (79.8)  
 Yes 86 (15.7) 14 (19.2) 14 (10.6) 43 (19.3) 15 (12.6)  
 Former 42 (7.7) 3 (4.1) 19 (14.4) 11 (4.9) 9 (7.6)  
Cognitive impairment       0.100
 No 520 (94.9) 70 (95.9) 124 (93.2) 217 (97.3) 109 (91.6)  
 Yes 28 (5.1) 3 (4.11) 9 (6.8) 6 (2.7) 10 (8.4)  
Disease history       
Heart disease       0.679
 No 388 (72.4) 52 (71.2) 90 (70.3) 164 (75.2) 82 (70.1)  
 Yes 148 (27.6) 21 (28.8) 38 (29.7) 54 (24.8) 35 (29.9)  
Hypertension       0.037
 No 263 (48.4) 32 (43.8) 54 (41.9) 124 (55.9) 53 (44.5)  
 Yes 280 (51.6) 41 (56.2) 75 (58.1) 98 (44.1) 66 (55.5)  
Diabetes       < 0.001
 No 442 (81.5) 58 (79.5) 94 (70.7) 196 (89.5) 94 (80.3)  
 Yes 100 (18.5) 15 (20.6) 39 (29.3) 23 (10.5) 23 (19.7)  
Hyperlipidemia       0.757
 No 400 (74.8) 55 (77.5) 99 (76.2) 157 (72.4) 89 (76.1)  
 Yes 135 (25.2) 16 (22.5) 31 (23.8) 60 (27.7) 28 (23.9)  
Frail at baseline*       < 0.001
 Frail 37 (6.8) 0 (0.0) 15 (11.3) 0 (0.0) 22 (18.5)  
 Pre-frail 232 (42.3) 17 (23.3) 118 (88.7) 0 (0.0) 97 (81.5)  
 Robust 279 (50.9) 56 (76.7) 0 (0.0) 223 (100) 0 (0.0)  
  1. The numbers in bold indicate statistically significant p-values
  2. * Fried et al. proposed the definition of frailty status with the following components: shrinking, weakness, poor endurance and energy, slowness, and low physical activity level
  3. #Changes in frailty status during 1-year period with the following categories: improvement of frailty status, no change between baseline and follow-up, and deterioration for frailty status
  4. aOthers include widowed, divorced, separated, and single
  5. The missing number for each variable is 3 in regular exercise, 1 in smoking habit, 1 in drinking habits, 12 in heart disease, 5 in hypertension, 6 in diabetes, and 13 in hyperlipidemia