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Table 4 Association of selected socio-demographic, lifestyle factors, familial history, co-morbidities and dietary habits with acne severity grades and acne scarring grades

From: Modifiable and non-modifiable epidemiological risk factors for acne, acne severity and acne scarring among Malaysian Chinese: a cross-sectional study

Variable Acne severity Acne scarring
Unadjusted Adjusteda Unadjusted Adjusteda
  OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p
A. Socio-demographic - gender
 Male 1.2 (0.882–1.634) 0.246 1.225 (0.896–1.675) 0.203 3.244 (1.864–5.644) < 0.001*** 3.238 (1.859–5.639) < 0.001***
 Female 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
B. Lifestyle factors
Paternal Smoker
 Yes 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 No 1.353 (0.956–1.912) 0.088 1.420 (1.001–2.016) 0.049* 0.901 (0.499–1.626) 0.728 0.919 (0.505–1.675) 0.784
Maternal Smoker
 Yes 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 No 0.561 (0.163–1.933) 0.36 0.582 (0.167–2.03) 0.396 0.305 (0.083–1.126) 0.075 0.210 (0.054–0.813) 0.024*
Parental Smoking
 None 1.375 (0.972–1.944) 0.072 1.450 (1.022–2.058) 0.038* 0.956 (0.509–1.795) 0.888 0.912 (0.480–1.733) 0.780
 At least 1 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Household smokers
 None 1.449 (1.030–2.039) 0.033* 1.529 (1.083–2.159) 0.016* 0.980 (0.542–1.775) 0.948 0.985 (0.539–1.801) 0.962
 At least 1 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Alcohol drinking
 Non-drinker 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Drinker 1.183 (0.877–1.596) 0.272 1.218 (0.895–1.657) 0.209 1.821 (1.032–3.215) 0.039* 1.555 (0.869–2.786) 0.137
C. Familial history
Parental Acne
 None 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Only 1 parent 0.824 (0.506–1.341) 0.436 0.872 (0.531–1.432) 0.587 3.049 (1.346–6.944) 0.008** 3.817 (1.634–8.929) 0.002**
 Both 1.101 (0.718–1.689) 0.659 1.195 (0.773–1.847) 0.423 1.572 (0.687–3.597) 0.284 1.515 (0.653–3.521) 0.333
D. Co-morbidities
BMI
 18.5–23 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  < 18.5 1.099 (0.721–1.675) 0.659 1.146 (0.748–1.755) 0.531 2.404 (1.185–4.878) 0.015* 2.445 (1.186–5.051) 0.015*
  > 23 1.061 (0.754–1.494) 0.735 0.957 (0.674–1.36) 0.808 1.381 (0.731–2.611) 0.320 1.241 (0.648–2.375) 0.515
Asthma
 Yes 0.631 (0.313–1.27) 0.197 0.544 (0.263–1.128) 0.102 4.359 (1.107–17.172) 0.035* 2.945 (0.689–12.588) 0.145
 No 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
E. Dietary habits
Nuts
 Never/ occasionally 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Once or twice/week 0.562 (0.384–0.824) 0.003** 0.585 (0.396–0.864) 0.007** 0.808 (0.404–1.618) 0.547 0.659 (0.322–1.346) 0.252
 Most or all days 0.524 (0.268–1.022) 0.058 0.547 (0.278–1.076) 0.081 0.646 (0.186–2.247) 0.492 0.692 (0.195–2.451) 0.569
Burgers/fast food
 Never/ occasionally 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Once or twice/week 0.637 (0.464–0.875) 0.005** 0.603 (0.436–0.834) 0.002** 0.746 (0.425–1.309) 0.307 0.660 (0.371–1.174) 0.157
 Most or all days 0.876 (0.500–1.534) 0.642 0.836 (0.473–1.477) 0.537 0.726 (0.243–2.174) 0.567 0.745 (0.245–2.262) 0.604
Cereal
 Never/ occasionally 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Once or twice/week 1.022 (0.587–1.781) 0.938 0.943 (0.537–1.655) 0.838 0.536 (0.231–1.244) 0.146 0.437 (0.183–1.046) 0.063
 Most or all days 1.005 (0.569–1.776) 0.986 0.956 (0.537–1.701) 0.877 0.303 (0.117–0.788) 0.014* 0.278 (0.105–0.739) 0.010*
Butter
 Never/ occasionally 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 More than once/week 0.858 (0.599–1.229) 0.403 0.835 (0.578–1.205) 0.335 0.504 (0.260–0.975) 0.042* 0.451 (0.230–0.887) 0.021*
Milk
 Never/ occasionally 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Once or twice/week 1.33 (0.946–1.869) 0.101 1.294 (0.916–1.828) 0.144 0.457 (0.255–0.816) 0.008** 0.441 (0.244–0.797) 0.007**
 Most or all days 1.095 (0.724–1.655) 0.667 1.111 (0.731–1.69) 0.622 0.232 (0.088–0.609) 0.003** 0.259 (0.097–0.689) 0.007**
  1. Results are from univariate and multivariate analysis on the variables associated with moderate/severe acne with reference to mild acne, or acne cases with Grade 3/4 scarring with reference to acne cases with Grade 1/2 scarring
  2. Values are odds ratio (95% CI); *p < 0.05 ** p < 0.01 *** p < 0.001
  3. aAdjusted for age and gender