Skip to main content

Table 2 Association of selected familial history, co-morbidities and lifestyle habits with acne presentation

From: Modifiable and non-modifiable epidemiological risk factors for acne, acne severity and acne scarring among Malaysian Chinese: a cross-sectional study

Variable Unadjusted p Adjusteda p
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
A. Socio-demographic factors
Age
  > 24 1.00 1.00
 20–24 1.502 (1.012–2.227) 0.043* 1.499 (1.009–2.222) 0.045*
  ≤ 19 1.401 (0.923–2.123) 0.114 1.397 (0.921–2.119) 0.116
Household number    
  ≤ 2 1.00 1.00
 2–4 2.037 (1.172–3.534) 0.012* 1.894 (1.079–3.322) 0.026*
  > 4 2.146 (1.247–3.690) 0.006** 1.984 (1.136–3.460) 0.016*
B. Familial history
Maternal Acne
 Yes 2.872 (2.253–3.660) < 0.001*** 2.861 (2.239–3.655) < 0.001***
 No 1.00 1.00
Paternal Acne
 Yes 3.314 (2.555–4.298) < 0.001*** 3.319 (2.553–4.315) < 0.001***
 No 1.00 1.00
Parental Acne
 None 1.00 1.00
 Only 1 parent 3.559 (2.494–5.076) < 0.001*** 3.663 (2.564–5.236) < 0.001***
 Both 3.497 (2.618–4.651) < 0.001*** 3.509 (2.625–4.717) < 0.001***
Sibling Acne
 Yes 3.187 (2.544–3.992) < 0.001*** 3.167 (2.527–3.968) < 0.001***
 No 1.00 1.00
Familial Acne
 None 1.00 1.00
 At least 1 parent/sibling 4.184 (3.279–5.348) < 0.001*** 4.202 (3.289–5.348) < 0.001***
C. Lifestyle factors
Alcohol drinking
 Non-drinker 1.00 1.00
 Drinker 1.292 (1.071–1.560) 0.008** 1.264 (1.045–1.529) 0.016*
D. Dietary habits
Butter consumption
 Never/ occasionally 1.00 1.00
 Once or twice/week 0.917 (0.724–1.163) 0.476 0.912 (0.717–1.157) 0.446
 Most or all days 0.672 (0.460–0.983) 0.041* 0.666 (0.455–0.975) 0.036*
Probiotic drink consumption
 Never/ occasionally 1.00 1.00
 Once or twice/week 1.189 (0.931–1.520) 0.165 1.185 (0.926–1.515) 0.178
 Most or all days 0.723 (0.523–0.999) 0.049* 0.701 (0.506–0.973) 0.034*
  1. Values are odds ratio (95% CI)
  2. *p < 0.05 ** p ≤ 0.009 *** p ≤ 0.000
  3. aAdjusted for age and gender