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Table 4 Mask usage behaviour, timing and duration for handwashing among participants

From: Effectiveness of personal protective health behaviour against COVID-19

  Total (N = 1137) Non-infected (N = 1113) Infected (N = 24) P value
Within 14 days before you returned to Macao, did you wear a mask when outdoors?
 Each time (%) 713/1137 (62.71%) 707/1113 (63.52%) 6/24 (25%) < 0.001
 Sometimes (%) 248/1137 (21.81%) 242/1113 (21.74%) 6/24 (25%) 0.702
 Seldom (%) 91/1137 (8%) 88/1113 (7.91%) 3/24 (12.5%) 0.412
 Never (%) 84/1137 (7.39%) 76/1113 (6.83%) 8/24 (33.33%) < 0.001
Your opinion on the frequency of accidentally touching the mouth and nose area after wearing a mask
 Less (%) 906/1134 (79.89%) 888/1113 (79.78%) 18/21 (85.71%) 0.783
 Same (%) 178/1134 (15.7%) 177/1113 (15.9%) 1/21 (4.76%) 0.230
 Increase (%) 50/1134 (4.41%) 48/1113 (4.31%) 2/21 (9.52%) 0.236
Do you think that hand hygiene is less important after wearing a mask? (yes, %) 56/1134 (4.94%) 55/1113 (4.94%) 1/21 (4.76%) 1.000
Did you frequently wash hands under the following situations within 14 days before returning to Macao?
 When your hands are visibly dirty (Yes, %) 906/1137 (79.68%) 885/1113 (79.51%) 21/24 (87.5%) 0.447
 Before eating (Yes, %) 832/1137 (73.18%) 818/1113 (73.5%) 14/24 (58.33%) 0.087
 Before handling food or cooking (Yes, %) 1041/1137 (91.56%) 1020/1113 (91.64%) 21/24 (87.5%) 0.448
 After handling food or cooking (Yes, %) 1066/1137 (93.76%) 1048/1113 (94.16%) 18/24 (75%) < 0.001
 After defecation (Yes, %) 1084/1137 (95.34%) 1063/1113 (95.51%) 21/24 (87.5%) 0.097
 After a toilet trip (Yes, %) 1037/1137 (91.2%) 1018/1113 (91.46%) 19/24 (79.17%) 0.035
 After outdoor activity (Yes, %) 1127/1137 (99.12%) 1107/1113 (99.46%) 20/24 (83.33%) < 0.001
 Before attending to a child or sick person (Yes, %) 1048/1137 (92.17%) 1028/1113 (92.36%) 20/24 (83.33%) 0.112
 After attending to a child or sick person (Yes, %) 1047/1137 (92.08%) 1027/1113 (92.27%) 20/24 (83.33%) 0.115
 After sneezing or coughing (Yes, %) 909/1137 (79.95%) 896/1113 (80.5%) 13/24 (54.17%) 0.001
 After handling pet (Yes, %) 918/1137 (80.74%) 904/1113 (81.22%) 14/24 (58.33%) 0.005
 Before touching the mouth and nose area (Yes, %) 975/1137 (85.75%) 963/1113 (86.52%) 12/24 (50%) < 0.001
Duration for handwashing each time within 14 days before returning to Macao (seconds, mean ± std. deviation) 23.6 ± 16.1 23.7 ± 16.1 18.8 ± 11.2 0.136
Handwashing for over 20 s each time (yes, %) 356/1127 (31.59%) 352/1103 (31.91%) 4/24 (16.67%) 0.125
The estimated number of handwashes with soap or alcoholic sanitizers per day within 14 days before returning to Macao (mean ± std. deviation) 9.2 ± 8.4 9.2 ± 8.4 9.1 ± 8.4 0.958