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Table 5 Cardiometabolic outcomes in the young adult offspring at a mean age of 20.6 years in association with maternal body mass index (BMI) status early in pregnancy, derived from both unadjusted and adjusted analyses

From: Higher maternal BMI early in pregnancy is associated with overweight and obesity in young adult offspring in Thailand

  UNADJUSTED ADJUSTED
Underweight Normal weight Overweight/obesity Underweight Normal weight Overweight/obesity
Glucose metabolism n (%) 62 (100%) 497 (97%) 51 (96%) 62 (100%) 497 (97%) 51 (96%)
Fasting glucose (mg/dL) 83 (81, 85) 83 (82, 83) 83 (81, 85) 83 (81, 85) 83 (82, 84) 83 (81, 86)
Fasting insulin (mIU/L) 7.34 (6.29, 8.79) 7.24 (6.83, 7.68) 8.41 (6.99, 10.12) 7.21 (6.04, 8.61) 7.15 (6.74, 7.60) 8.72 (7.21, 10.55)
HOMA-IR 1.53 (1.28, 1.82) 1.48 (1.40, 1.58) 1.72 (1.42, 2.08) 1.49 (1.24, 1.79) 1.47 (1.38, 1.56) 1.79 (1.47, 2.18)
Atherosclerosis marker n (%) 61 (98%) 488 (95%) 51 (96%) 61 (98%) 488 (95%) 51 (96%)
CIMT (mm) 0.443 (0.435. 0.451) 0.439 (0.436, 0.442) 0.436 (0.428, 0.445) 0.445 (0.436, 0.453) 0.440 (0.437, 0.443) 0.435 (0.426, 0.444)
Blood pressure n (%) 62 (100%) 504 (98%) 52 (98%) 62 (100%) 504 (98%) 52 (98%)
Systolic (mmHg) 114 (111, 117) 115 (113, 116) 116 (112, 119) 114 (111, 117) 115 (114, 116) 116 (113, 119)
Diastolic (mmHg) 74 (71, 77) 74 (73, 75) 74 (71, 77) 74 (72, 77) 74 (73, 75) 74 (71, 77)
Lipid profile n (%) 62 (100%) 497 (97%) 52 (98%) 62 (100%) 497 (97%) 52 (98%)
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 168 (159, 176) 168 (165, 171) 174 (165, 184) 167 (157, 176) 167 (164, 170) 173 (163, 183)
HDL (mg/dL) 55 (52, 59) 57 (55, 58) 54 (50, 58) 55 (51, 59) 57 (55, 58) 53 (49, 57)
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 82 (73, 93) 75 (72, 79) 75 (65, 85) 82 (72, 93) 76 (72, 79) 76 (66, 88)
Total cholesterol/HDL 3.13 (2.91, 3.35) 3.11 (3.03, 3.19)* 3.36 (3.12, 3.59) 3.13 (2.90, 3.36) 3.11 (3.03, 3.18)* 3.41 (3.16, 3.64)
  1. CIMT, carotid intima-media thickness; HDL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HOMA-IR, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance
  2. Underweight, BMI < 18.5 kg/m2; normal weight, BMI 18.5–24.99 kg/m2; and overweight/obesity, BMI ≥25.0 kg/m2
  3. Data on n (%) are the number and proportion of available samples for a given parameter per group; all other data are means and the respective 95% confidence intervals, with adjusted models accounting for gestational age, birth order, and sex, as well as participant’s height for blood pressure
  4. *p < 0.05 for a pairwise comparison to the offspring of mothers with overweight/obesity