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Table 5 Overview bivariate analysis results (2): Kruskal–Wallis test: differences between (categorical) groups for the General Health Questionnaire followed by Mann–Whitney U (N = 1781)

From: Meaningful activities during COVID-19 lockdown and association with mental health in Belgian adults

  GHQ Mean
(Range; SD)
GHQ Median (inter quartile) P-value Kruskal– Wallis P-value Mann-Whitney Ua
Marital status    <.001  
 1.Married 12.54 (0–36; 6.18) 11 (9)   .033 between 1 and 2
 2.Divorced 14.74 (3–32; 7.08) 15 (11)   <.001 between 1 and 3
 3.Alone 16.56 (1–36; 6.79) 16 (10)   <.001 between 1 and 5
 4.Widow 12.91 (1–23; 5.61) 13 (7)   <.001 between 1 and 6
 5.Living together 14.17 (0–36; 6.73) 13 (10)   .019 between 3 and 4
 6.Other 16.07 (2–35; 6.81) 16 (10)   <.001 between 3 and 5
     .001 between 5 and 6
Educational level    .156  
 Primary education 12.3 (4–20; 5.74) 10.50 (11)   
 Secondary education 15.44 (1–35; 7.17) 14.50 (11)   
 Higher education 14.69 (0–36; 6.71) 14 (10)   
Employment status    <.001  
 1.Student 16.67 (1–36; 6.80) 16 (9)   <.001 between 1 and 2
 2.Employed 13.16 (0–34; 6.25) 12 (9)   <.001 between 1 and 3
 3.Not employed 13.78 (1–36; 6.90) 12 (9)   
Living condition    <.001  
 1.Alone 15.19 (2–35; 7.30) 14 (11)   .002 between 1 and 3
 2.Alone with children 14.29 (1–29; 6.97) 15 (10)   .001 between 1 and 4
 3.Living together without children 13.09 (0–36; 6.23) 12 (9)   .025 between 1 and 5
 4.Living together with children 12.83 (0–36; 6.47) 11.5 (9)   .001 between 1 and 7
 5.Living in with parent(s),family 16.36 (1–36; 6.50) 16 (10)   .004 between 2 and 7
 6.Room alone 19.27 (5–36; 8.37) 21 (12)   <.001 between 3 and 5
 7.Room together 19.34 (3–35; 8.01) 22 (13)   .003 between 3 and 6
 8.Other 14.88 (3–34; 7.96) 13 (11)   <.001 between 3 and 7
     <.001 between 4 and 5
     .002 between 4 and 6
     <.001 between 4 and 7
     .005 between 5 and 7
     .025 between 7 and 8
Region    .545  
 Flanders 14.88 (0–36; 6.80) 14 (11)   
 Wallonia 14.81 (3–34; 7.53) 14 (11)   
 Brussels 13.68 (2–32; 6.95) 12 (10)   
Working situation    .504  
 Working from home 13.36 (0–33; 6.44) 13 (10)   
 Work as usual 12.92 (4–30; 5.46) 11 (8)   
 Technically unemployed 14.74 (4–34; 7.54) 13 (10)   
 Other 14.28 (0–36; 7.58) 13 (8)   
Health condition    <.001  
 1.Healthy 14.63 (0–36; 6.66) 14 (10)   .011 between 1 and 2
 2.Acute ill 17.02 (2–31; 6.99) 16 (11)   .001 between 1 and 4
 3.Chronically ill 15.06 (3–36; 7.09) 14 (10)   .042 between 2 and 3
 4.Mentally ill 20.23 (2–36; 9.17) 20.50 (11)   .003 between 3 and 4
  1. To increase the interpretability, means as well as medians were displayed in this table. Higher scores in GHQ indicate lower mental health. aThe numbers in the last column correspond with the groups described in column 1