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Table 4 Backward multiple linear regression models. Dependent variable: estimated cumulative prevalence

From: Socioeconomic, demographic and healthcare determinants of the COVID-19 pandemic: an ecological study of Spain

  Coefficients and variance inflation factors (VIFs)
Explanatory variables Model 1 VIF Model 2 VIF Model 3 VIF Model 4 VIF Model 5 VIF Model 6 VIF
Constant −0.355   − 0.356   −0.427   −0.482*   −0.487*   −0.428*  
Nursing homes beds 0.018** 4.21 0.019** 4.15 0.018*** 3.85 0.016*** 1.94 0.016*** 1.85 0.016*** 1.84
% Nursing homes >100b 0.001 4.42 0.001 4.45 0.001 3.81 0.001 2.29 0.001 2.16 0.001** 1.45
Urban population −0.0006 3.02 −0.0006 2.79 −0.0006 2.78 −0.0006 2.77 −0.0006 2.76 −0.0007* 2.34
Aeroplane passengers 0.00001 8.19 0.00001* 7.17 0.00001** 5.62 0.00001** 3.71 0.00001*** 2.14 0.00001*** 1.94
Island region −0.0201 2.18 −0.0198 2.16 −0.0208 2.03 −0.0245 1.71 −0.0247* 1.71 −0.0290** 1.48
Log GDP per capita 0.025 5.58 0.026 5.49 0.031 4.08 0.047 2.20 0.050* 2.02 0.041* 1.70
% >65y population −0.214 2.43 −0.207 2.31 −0.205 2.30 −0.223 2.23 −0.220 2.23 −0.277* 1.85
Hospital beds −0.0001 3.56 −0.0001 3.23 −0.0001 2.89 −0.0001 2.89 −0.0001 2.47   
Log Public Health Expenditure 0.0001 8.45 0.0001 7.87 0.0001 7.80 0.00002 3.44     
PM2.5 concentration 0.002 4.09 0.002 4.07 0.002 3.90       
Gini Index −5.426 4.94 −7.177 4.36         
Doctors 0.00002 2.90           
Adjusted R2 0.634   0.706   0.753   0.774   0.796   0.80  
p-value 0.129   0.055   0.021   0.009   0.003   0.001  
Shapiro-Wilk test (p-value)           0.416  
Durbin-Watson test            2.083  
  1. *Significant at p < .1 level, **Significant at p < 0.05 level, and *** Significant at p < 0.01 level